gPOQtPOEHPtPOAnPL-GITABITAN
yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL ukPPwvPO nPLA aAisPF tPOiHP ePkPPlPA cPFilPA urPF|

Book Cover

rPcPnPLA pPPErLLEcPEtPO

rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP:  1312 (1905)
kPPEHPrP HPbPsLP: 44
špPOLkPPASPF: BPOAŠdP 1312 , BPOALŇPLArP-ePkPPA |
HPAwvPOlP-ePkPPA;gPOAnPL (1316, jPLAtPOQbPL)F|

Poems 40; The Music of Hindosthan, Fox-Strangways; Rabindranath - Basanta Koomar Roy
gPOQtPOE`HPtPOAnPL(pPOLyPYAbPL;#/FpOLÍ) ŃO¸PidPLSPF-ŃO¸PidPLSPF; 3/244
rPAgPO / tPOAlP: HPAwvPOlP / dPLAdPLrPA
ŃO¸PrPElPEpPOL: sPF╦PQtPO špPOLkPPAESPFkPPA; sPF╦PQtPOEHPŞPPAnPL špPOLiHPESPFkPPA; ŃO¸PrPE`HPtPOAnPL 46
ŃO¸PrPE`lPEpPOLkPPArP : vhPFEËOdPrPA udPLHPQ; eř; eř
pPOLAdPLWvPFQkPPA:
anPLz-BPOA╩PFA gPOAnPL, 'hPFErP nPLAmPF EdPLibPL jPLgPOtPO mPFAtPOAilP', špPOLAEÔPLŰPOAnPL - SPFtPOgPOAnPL [rP-E└eOL`];[rP-BPOA]F| 'SPFtPOgPOAinPL' HPAwvPOlP HPilP wvPOE`┬lPEKPtPO EkPP┘UO sFUrPEWvPF aAsPFilP WPOLpPOL kPPQtPOYnPLF| lPAlPnPL fPOEkPPirPrP 'kPPTPA kPPbPL kPPAiCPF udPLKPA yPAbPL nPLA' gPOAinPLrP sFUirPrP sPFi╦P gPOBPOQrP EmPFlP [arPqNPkFUOmPFArP HPsFU, rPEHP-HPAwvPOilPrP sPF˸PýAinPLF|]F|
pPOLAVPFiBPOdPL:
tPOiHP ePkPPlPA cPFilPA...ePkPPlPA cPFilPA urP
    [HPAwvPOlP]F|


aAilPAcPFnPLA

aAdPLSPFY gPOAnPL:

   űuHPXOL╬HP HPAwvPOlP/dPLAdPLrPA

hPFErPnPLAmPF EdPLibPL jPLgPOtPO mPFAtPOAilP
    aAmPFArP ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPFF|
    aAmPFArP ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPF
    ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPF, ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPF
      ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPF urPF|
aAmPFArP EnPLtPOAvhPF yPEdPL
  wPOAkPPirP EnPLtPOAvhPF ugPO┤rP HPilP,
yPEdPL mPFinPL kPPirP
  tPOiHP ugPO┤rP EnPLilPvhPF EnPLitPO pPOLAirPF|
    aAmPFArP EnPLtPOAvhPF EnPLtPO▓ ugPO┤rP,
    wPOAkPPirP EnPLtPOAvhPF ugPO┤rP HPilP,
    EnPLtPOz kPP▄PtPOrPq, ušpPOLmPF dPLAtPOA
      jPLgPOitPOrP gOUrPqF|
aAmPFArP EnPLtPOAvhPF nPLHPrPýpPOLA,
  wPOAkPPirP EnPLtPOAvhPF ugPO┤rP HPilP,
    EnPLtPOAvhPF nPLHPrPýpPOLAF|
nPLHP rPAsPFEHPhPFArPQ,
  EnPLtPOAvhPF żPPiNPkPP FpOLUrPqXP, żPPiNPkPP nPLArPQ
      ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPFF|F|


    --HU¬PýidPLHP rPAbPL, sFUEnPLHPYAEcPFtPO HPAwvPOlP gPOAinPLrP ŃO¸PrPElPEpPOL



ePrP pPOLrP [1308] yPKPnPL kPPilPijPLrP wvPO cUF u`šLSPFNPQitPO wvPOiVPFECPF tPOKPnPL ePilPA HP╦PBPOi╦PrP aAiËOdPAlPnPLF| uyP aAiHPgPO oPF wvPOi└oP`LjPLnPLA HPA╦PAlPQ ESPFEżPPtPO sPF╚OšpPOLdPLAibPL, EHPiSPFXP aAmPFAidPLrP CPFA└eOL` sPF╚OšpPOLdPLAibPL ujPLigPO wvPOVPFilPA tPOArP anFUrPýpPOL EkPPCUF eP sPF╚OšpPOLdPLAibPLrP jPLQHPinPL FpOLZiHPY kPPKPinPLA GPLiWvPF EnPL, ePHPM pPOLirPoPF aAjPL pPOLyPY┘PO GPLiWvPF EnPLF| ePvhPF udPLSPFHPzApPOLQ wvPOËOL╔PAdPLnPLArP mPFiDPFz rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP tPOA rP dLZrP˝PL GFUEcPFibPL aAmPFAidPLrP mPFiDPFz ePilPnPL, hPF'ubPL wvPOVPFilPnPL CPFA└eOL`idPLrP a┘POrP╦PF| špPOLTPmPF rPAKPQ-HP˸PýinPLrP EdPLnPL gPOAnPL cPFAvhPFF| "HPAMlPArP mPFAEWvPF HPAMlPArP jPLlP" špPOLÚUFtPOF| WvPFAwvPOnPL hPFilPrP EHPrPAWvPF jPLnPL sPFBPOAbPL gPOAoPFbPLArP jPLnPLz gPOAnPL dPLrPkPPArPF| ePilPA "aAmPFArP usPFAnPLArP HPAMlPA aAEmPF utPOAmPFAbPL BPOAilPAHPAEsPFF|" tPOA rP sFUirPrP sPFi╦P aAmPFAidPLrP uHPsFUrP EmPFESPFibPL usPF gPOAnPL aAmPFrPA usPF sPFBPOAbPL ugPOibPLECPFF| EdPLinPLrP pPOLrP EdPLnPL tPOA rP špPOLHPi˸Pý, kPPEHPtPOAbPL, gPOAinPL aAmPFAidPLrP anFUBZOEtPOrP tPOËFÝPLQ JPFnPL▓ JPFnPL▓ kPPirP ukPP ipPOL wvPOVPFitPO lPAgPOilPAF| "umPFAidPLrP yPA└eOL`A hPF'ulPA sFUrPq", " EHPEDPFrP HPA DPFnPL kPPAWvPFiHP tUOEmPF", "ECPF ECPF ucPFAiKPrP jPLilP", "yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL", "yPEdPL utPOArP BPOAHPnPLA TPAikPP" -- usPFEdPLnPLkPPArP kPPtPOkPPgPOAnPL kPPAHPz-BPOALŇPLAirP ażPPbPL hPF'ubPL TPAkPPiHPF| EkPP┘UO usPFEdPLinPLrP tPOrPqNP yUHPkPPidPLrP pPOLiżPP HͬPý HPbPLisPFoPF EHPSFU¬Pý sPFAEhPFEtPOzkPP uHPADPF EdPLibPL ePsPFHP gPOAnPL yPAcPFAvhPF kPPrPA asPFĂPFHPF| rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLAiTPrP gPOAnPL kPPi█PO EnPLibPL EnPLBPOYibPL fPOA EsPFkPPAiVPF wvPOVPFitPO pPOLAirP tPOArP sPFMKPzA aAmPFAidPLrP mPFiDPFz kPPmPF ECPFlP nPLAF| uyP umPFAihPFrP aHPiSPFXP mPFinPLrP mPFiDPFz aAjPLoPF aAiCPFF|

    --atUOlPcPFËLšLdPL gOUÔPL, aAmPFAidPLrP CPFA└eOL`AHPŰPOA oPF rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP, kPPEHPtPOA rPHPQËLšLdPL sPFMKPzA, rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOirPrP aSPFQEtPOtPOmPF jPLËOL╔PEdPLinPL špPOLkPPAESPFtPO, 25iSPF űuHPSPFAKP, 1348,  sPF╚OLpPOLAdPLkPP: HU¬PýidPLHP HPsFU (FpOLUnPLmFUYŠdPNP 1409)


rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLAiTPrP ainPLkPP gPOAnPL EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPLQrPA tPOAhPFAidPLrP kPPAijPL lPAgPOAvhPFbPLAiCPFF|. . . ukPPAinPLA EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPLQ yPKPnPL dLUvhPF cPFAErPjPLnPL HP˸UýrP sPFi╦P EnPLjPLYinPL HPEsPFbPLA EnPLijPLikPP sPFtPOzvhPF ePkPPlPA mPFinPL kPPErPbPLA špPOLAiNPrP aAiHPigPO gPOAEhPFtPO "yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL ukPPwvPO nPLA aAisPF" tPOKPnPL EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPLQrPA nPLHPHPilP HPlPQbPLAnPL hPFvhPFbPLA wvPOEVPFtPOF|. . . yPKPnPL ePikPP ePikPP ainPLikPPvhPF dPLlP CPFAEwxPFlP EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPLQrPA tPOKPnPL gPOAEhPFtPO "uyP utPOAmPFAbPL CPFAiwxPF CPFAwxPUkPP"F| ePmPFEnPL kPPErPbPLAvhPF EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPLQrPA HPlP pPOLAvhPFbPLAiCPF BPOrPsPFA pPOLAvhPFbPLAiCPFF|


    --nPLElPnPLQEkPPiSPFArP gOUhPF, HPAMlPAbPL EHP┬pPFHPHPAdPL, 1376


`šFHPA│PFsPFmPFAijPLrP pPOLELŇPLtPO sPFQtPOAnPLATP tPO└oFŘOLBZOXPiNPrP kPPnPLzA SPFAE┘POmPFbPLQ dPL└oP`L [pPOLirP sFUgPOAEbPLkPPA EhPFsPFAiHP KPzAEtPOlPABPO kPPirPnPL] ElPKPiCPFnPL: "rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATPikPP špPOLTPmPF udPLEKP 1906 KLÍŃOFWvPFAiíPF|... `šFHPA│PF HPAElPkPPA EHPdPLzAlPibPLrP CPFA└eOL`QrPýipPOL gPOAinPLrP `┬FkPPAisPF gPOAnPL ESPFEKP--hPFVPFA­ ePkPPEdPLnPL wPOAkPP ePlP rPAÚPFArP apPOLrPEdPLikPPrP sPFzArP jPLgPOdPLQSPF HPsFUrP HPAEwxPF uTPikPPF| rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP tPOA rP sPFdPLz-ulPKPA ŃO¸PrPEcPFtPO ŃO¸PidPLSPFQ gPOAnPL uSPFAnPLAiHPnPL usPFKPAinPLF| EHPdPLzAlPibPLrP gPOAnPL-jPLAnPLA umPFibPLrPA tPOA rP mFUKP uTPikPP SFUinPL gPOAnPLgOUElP ESPFiKP unPLiHPF|... agPOYAinPL HPisPFiCPFnPL EsPF aArP dPLAiSPFrP BPOgLďPQ amPFlPA dPLASPFF| kPPEHP ePisPF pPOLikPPWvPF uTPikPP uCPFAWvPF unPLAWvPFHPvhPF KLUilP gPOAvhPFilPnPL, 'yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL ukPPwvPO nPLA aAisPF' ePHPM 'ePHPArP utPOArP mPFrPA gPOAi╩PF HPAnPL ePisPFiCPF'F|

špPOLTPimPF EtPOEnPL ePkPPHPArP gPOAvhPFilPnPL KPAElP gPOlPAbPLF| tPOArPpPOLrP amPFlPA dPLAiSPFrP HPAjPLnPLArP sPFi╦PF| dPLrPAjPL, wvPOęLcPF kPP█POŃO¸PrP EkPP┘UO ePkPPWvUF umPFibPLElP DPFrPinPLrPF| tPOA rP usPFvhPF sFU-wvPOęLcPF EmPFŕPL kPP█POŃO¸PirP GPLrPKPAnPLA uyPnPL gPOmPF▓gPOmPF▓ kPPirP BPOirP ugPOlPF|... aAmPFrPA umPFibPLrPA gPOAnPL ESPFKPHP kPPQ-- gPOAbPLikPPrP ucPFAKP-DPFA DPFAinPLA rPýipPOL-- atUOlPnPLQbPL gPOAinPLrP mPFADFUiyPY uyPnPL sPFi╚OL╔PAEhPFtPO hPFibPL ucPFibPL rPvhPFlPAmPFF|" (43)


kPPAmPFAKPzAkPPA┘PO rPAbPL [SPFAE┘POEnPLikPPtPOnPL špPOLA└oPLŢnPLQ] HPlPiCPFnPL: "špPOLAkPP▓-kFUOEWvPFirPrP FpOLUHPEdPLikPPrP wvPO└oP`LrP ukPPAiNP ePkPPEWvPF jPLApPOLAnPLQ arPgPOzAnPL ECPFlPF| sPF˸PýzAbPL gOUrPqidPLHP ePEWvPF HPAEjPLibPL aAmPFAidPLrP gPOAnPL uSPFKPAitPOnPLF| 'ePkPPlPA cPFilPA, ePkPPlPA cPFilPA'-- CPFA└eOL`idPLrP kPPi█PO tUOilP udPLHPArP jPLnPLz EtPOEnPL ainPLkPPHPArP ugPOibPLiCPFnPL, ePHPM ainPLkPPEdPLnPL DPFirPF|" (61)

    --pPOLATPY HPsFU, "gPOAbPLkPP rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP", aAnPLËOdP - 1393-utPO wvPO¬ÍýtPO


'hPFErPnPLAmPF EdPLibPL jPLgPO­ mPFAtPOAilP aAmPFArP ePkPPlPA EnPLtPOAvhPF' ulP┤EkPPkPP kPPQtPOYinPLrP sFUirP rPEcPFtPO yPiSPFAhPFrP a¤POilP špPOLcPFElPtPO ePkPPEWvPF EnPLtPOzAnPLËOdP-BPOjPLnPL (BPOAXPAbPL yPiSPFAhPFrP-KLUlPnPLA-nPLdPLQbPLA-fPOErPdPLFpOLUirPrP aA¤POElPkPP wvPOpPOLBPOAXPArP špPOLBPOAHP sFUŃPOpPOLŕPL) ePHPM ePrP sFUirPrP aAdPLiSPFYvhPF 'yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL' gPOAnPLEWvPF rPEcPFtPO hPFibPLECPFlPF| EkPP┘UO usPFvhPF sPFi╦P lPAlPnPL fPOEkPPirPrP sFUEHPKPzAtPO 'kPPTPA kPPbPL kPPAiCPF udPLKPA yPAbPL nPLA' gPOAnPLEWvPFrP sFUrPoPF kPPEHPrP ŃPF╔PrPiNP ECPFlP, gPOAnPLEWvPFrP sPFi╦P 'hPFErPnPLAmPF EdPLibPL' gPOAnPLEWvPFrP sFUrPgPOtPO EmPFlP dLUlPYżPPz nPLbPLF| lPAlPinPLrP gPOAnPLEWvPF kPPEHPrP aHPSPFzvhPF jPLAnPLA ECPFlP, kPPArPNP HPQNPAHPAEdPLnPLQ pPOLE└eOL`kPPAbPL 1305 fPOA─UnPL sPFMKPzAbPL vhPFEËOdPrPA udPLHPQ gPOAnPLEWvPFrP ŃO¸PrPElPEpPOL špPOLkPPASPF kPPirPnPLF|

    --arPqNPkFUOmPFArP HPsFU, 'aAmPFArP aApPOLnPL gPOAnPL', ePkFUOSPFSPFtPOkPP, 1418


 

 

3

yPEdPL utPOArP   wPOAkPP SFUinPL ukPPwvPO nPLA aAisPF   tPOiHP   ePkPPlPA cPFilPA urPF|
ePkPPlPA cPFilPA,  ePkPPlPA cPFilPA,  ePkPPlPA cPFilPA,  ePkPPlPA cPFilPA urPF|F|
yPEdPL    ukPPwvPO kPPTPA nPLA kPPbPL,   oPFirP oPFirP oPF aBPOAgPOA,
yPEdPL    sPFHPAvhPF TPAikPP mFUKP EfPOrPAibPL   sPFHPAvhPF kPPirP BPObPL--
               tPOiHP   pPOLrPAnPL KLUilP
oPF tUOvhPF  mFUKP fUOLiWvPF utPOArP mPFinPLrP kPPTPA   ePkPPlPA HPilPA urPF|F|
yPEdPL    sPFHPAvhPF EfPOirP yPAbPL,  oPFirP oPFirP oPF aBPOAgPOA,
yPEdPL    gPOhPFnPL pPOLiTP yPAHPArP kPPAilP ukPPwvPO EfPOirP nPLA cPFAbPL--
               tPOiHP   pPOLiTPrP kPPA WvPFA
oPF tUOvhPF  rP└oPLŢmPFAKPA cPFrPNPtPOilP   ePkPPlPA dPLilPA urPF|F|
yPEdPL    aAilPA nPLA DPFirP,   oPFirP oPFirP oPF aBPOAgPOA,
yPEdPL    JPFwxPF-HPAdPLilP aA DPFArP rPAitPO   dLUbPLArP udPLbPL GPLirP--
               tPOiHP    HPŠjPLAnPLilP
aApPOLnPL    HUikPPrP pPOLA jPLrP jŘPAElPibPL EnPLibPL    ePkPPlPA jŘPilPA urPF|F|

Portrait

EHPEHPDPF tPOTPz oP aAilPAcPFnPLA:

40

I  F they answer not to thy call walk alone,
If they are afraid and cower mutely facing
     the wall,
O thou of evil luck,
open thy mind and speak out alone.

If they turn away, and desert you when
     crossing the wilderness,
O thou of evil luck,
trample the thorns under thy tread,
and along the blood-lined track travel
     alone.

If they do not hold up the light
when the night is troubled with storm,
O thou of evil luck,
with the thunder flame of pain ignite
     thine own heart
and let it burn alone.

Poems: a collection of one hundred and thirty poems, all but fifteen of which have been translated by the Poet himself. Edited by Krishna Kripalani, Amiya Chakrabarty and others.

    --Rabindranath Tagore, Poems, Visva-Bharati, 1942



Another version:

Jadi tor dak

I F no one responds to your call then go on alone.
  And if there is no one to speak out, and if they turn their face and are afraid, then open your heart and speak only you. Speak alone, speak alone.
  If every one goes back and none accompanies you in the difficult path, then tread the thorns with bloody feet alone. Tread alone, tread alone.
  If there is no one to light the lamp, and if every one shuts his door in the stormy dark night, then burn the ribs of your heart with the thunder fire and burn alone, burn alone.


    --Rabindranath Tagore, in The Music of Hindostan, A.H. Fox Strangways, Oxford, 1914.



And yet another version:

I F nobody responds to your call, then follow the path all alone, all alone; if every one is afraid and nobody wants to speak to you, then, O, you unfortunate ! speak to yourself the story of your own sorrow; if while travelling in the wilderness, everybody deserts you and turns against you, mind them not, but trample the thorns and bathe your feet with your own blood, and go all by yourself. If again in the stormy night you do not find a single soul to hold the light for you, and they all close their doors against you, be not faint-hearted, forlorn patriot, but take a rib out of your side and light it with the fire of lightning, and then follow the gleam, follow the gleam.

    --Basanta Koomar Roy, Rabindranaath Tagore: The Man and His Poetry, Dodd, Mead & Co., New York,1925



A different kind of interest and a still greater pleasure was afforded by a visit to Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali poet. In accordance with the best Indian tradition he is poet and musician in one. His poetry is beginning to speak to us for itself : even in a few scattered translations it is possible to hear the voice of a man. who thinks deeply and truly, who sees things as they really are, making- invisible things visible as florescence does in optics, and touching them with tenderness and reverence. To hear him recite his poems is to be reminded of the way in which Tennyson is said by his biographer to have recited Maud ; and indeed such a line as "Laborious orient ivory sphere in sphere" has something of the ring of Bengali verse about it, while the terseness, the inheritance of the Sutras, of a language which is the descendant of that compact wonder, Sanskrit, we could hardly parallel short of Horace. To hear him sing them is to realize the music in a way that it is seldom given to a foreigner to do. The notes of the song are no longer their mere selves, but the vehicle of a personality, and as such they go behind this or that system of music to that beauty o sound which all systems put out their hands to seize. These melodies are such as would have satisfied Plato. I do not know the modes/ said Socrates, but leave me one that will imitate the tones and accents of a brave man enduring danger or distress, fighting with constancy against fortune ; and also one fitted for the work of peace, for prayer heard by the gods, and for the successful persuasion or exhortation of men. (92)

    --A.H. Fox Strangways, The Music of Hindostan, Oxford, 1914


1905 sPFinPLrP pPOLňcPFA­pPOLWvPF:

rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLAiTPrP jPLgPO­:  19iSPF jPLAnFUbPLAErP 88 HPCPFrP HPbPLisPF mPFhPFEXPY udPLiHPËLšLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOirPrP mFÍtUOzF| EHPDFUiSPFKPrP BPO˘POAcPFAyPY SPFAE┘POEnPLikPPtPOinPL ESPFżPPkPP hPFibPL ePilPnPLF| mPFAEsPFkPP 'BPOALŇPLArP' pPOLE└eOL`kPPArP sPF╚OLpPOLAdPLnPLArP dPLAEbPL˝PL šLgPFhPFNP kPPrPilPnPLF| aAgPOrPtPOlPAbPL E└eOL`FpOLUrPA sPFAEhPFtPOz sPFEmPFEtPOrP aAmPFËFÝPLiNP EgPOibPL 'udPLSPFQbPL rPAjPLz' špPOLHP˸Pý pPOLAVPF kPPrPilPnPLF| lPwPOY kPPAjPLYinPLrP HP╦PBPOi╦PrP špPOLÚPFAiHP udPLSPFHPzApPOLQ EHPiżPPAiBPO rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP uyPAgPO EdPLilPnPL, 'aHPŰPOA oPF HPzHPŰPOA' špPOLHPi˸Pý E`šFHPEWvPFSPF ŠdPHPz HPbPLkPPWvPF oPF asPFhPFiyPAgPO nPLQEtPOrP kPPTPA HPlPilPnPLF| 16vhPF ai┴POAHPrP HP╦PBPO╦P uhPFAilPAF| špPOLEtPOHPAidPL uSPFABPOAyPA└eOL`A uhPFAilPA rPAKPQHP˸PýnPL wvPO­sPFHP kPPirP, 'HPAMlPArP mPFAEWvPF, HPAMlPArP jPLlP' gPOAnPL ugPOibPLF| kPPEHP EnPLijPL ePkPP EHPrPAWvPF uSPFABPOAyPA└eOL`ArP ašLgPFNPQ hPFibPL HP╦PBPOi╦PrP špPOLEtPOHPAdPL oPF sPFkPPlP HPA╩PFAElPrP EmPFlPinPLrP SPFpPOLTP šLgPFhPFNP uGPLAXPNPA kPPrPilPnPLF| uHPSPFQrP BPOAgPO ŃO¸PidPLSPFQ sPF╦PQtPO ePvhPF sPFmPFibPLrP rPcPFnPLAF| EkPPCUFkPPAlP ePvhPF aAiËOdPAlPinPL GPLEnPLţPOBPOAiHP jPLEwxPFtPO uTPikPP kPPEHP aAiËOdPAlPinPLrP pPOLTP uTPikPP sPFirP yPAnPLF| 22iSPF ai┴POAHPrP CPFA└eOL`idPLrP rPAjPLűinPLEtPOkPP aAiËOdPAlPinPL aMSPFšLgPFhPFNP EnPLEXP¬Pý kPPirP kFUOKPzAtPO kPPAlPYAvhPFlP sPFAkFUOYlPArP jPLAErP kPPrPA hPFbPLF| tPOArP špPOLEtPOHPAidPL HPhUF CPFA└eOL`sPFBPOAbPL HP└oÍLŢtPOAF| uSPFiXP sPFtPOQSPFcPFËLšLdPL mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAibPLrP wPOnPL usPFAsPFAvhPFEWvPFitPO aAiËOdPAlPinPLrP pPOLTP uCPFiwxPF udPLHPArP kPPTPA uGPLAXPNPAF| kFUOEŕPLbPLAbPL HPbPLnPL EHPdPLzAlPbPL, pPOLEtPOsPFirP kFÍOEXPHPzA╠PO ePHPM EnPLjPL jPLEmPFdPLAErPitPO nPLAnPLA gPOVPFnPLmFZlPkPP kPPAjPL SFUrPq kPPrPilPnPLF| špPOLkPPASPF: aA˛PSPFE└oPLŢ, HPAwvPOlP, ŃO¸PidPLSPFF|

HPEhPFEHPYiSL¸P: 18 ufPO`šFHPqbPLAErP lPLŇPLinPL vhPFELŇPLbPLAnPL uhPFAmPF rPqlP usPFAsPFAvhPFEWvPF ŰPOAEpPOLtPO hPFbPLF| 20iSPF jULlPAvhPF E`šFHPEWvPFSPF pPOLAlPYAimPFÎFWvPF HP╦PBPO╦P špPOLÚPFAHP anFUimPFAdPLnPL kPPirPF| 19iSPF agPOAŃOFWvPF lPwPOY kPPAjPLYnPL pPOLdPLtPOzAgPO kPPirPnPL, nPLtUOnPL HPwxPFlPAWvPF lPwPOY EmPFiÎFWvPFAF| 16vhPF ai┴POAHPrP HP╦PBPO╦P kPPAyPYkPPrPQ hPFbPLF| WPOLAkPPA SPFhPFirP rPAjPLDPFAnPLQ kPPirP FpOLZHPYHPAMlPA oPF aAsPFAmPF EmPFElPibPL ePkPP nPLtUOnPL špPOLidPLSPF gPOVPFnPL kPPrPA hPFbPLF| rPAKPQHP˸PýnPL, ŃO¸PidPLSPFQ gPOAnPL ugPOibPL uSPFABPOAyPA└eOL`A ePHPM arP˸PýnPL vhPFtPOzAEdPL ¬PArPA HPA╩PFAlPQ uSPFAkPP špPOLkPPASPF kPPirPF| rPAESPFbPLArP sPFi╦P jPLApPOLAinPLrP yUi¬Pý jPLApPOLAinPLrP jPLbPL, SPFAE┘POEnPLikPPtPOinPL EHPjPLibPLA­sPFHPF| rPAESPFbPLAitPO jPLArPtPOiËFÝPLrP EHPrPqi¬Pý EHP┬pPFHPF| wPOAHPElPinPL EsPFnPL▓-EfPOnPL pPOLAEWvPFYrP špPOLEtPOţPOAF| sPFAnPL-vhPFbPLA­-usPFnPL cPFQinPLrP gOUÔPLsPFEmPFEtPOgOUElPikPP ePkPP└eOL` kPPrPilPnPL mPFA¤UOidPLrP EHPtPOAwxPFinPLrP jPLnPLzF|  lPLŇPLinPL umPFAWvPFrP HPAsPF cPFlPA aArPĂPF uhPFAilPAF| aAvhPFnPLŃOFWvPFAvhPFnPL špPOLkPPASPF kPPrPilPnPL EHPiSPFXP aAipPOLEżPPkPPHPAdPLF| wvPOi`┬lPKPiyPAgPOz sPFAEhPFtPOz: HPA╩PFAlPQrP gPOAnPL (dLUgPOYAdPLAsPF lPAEhPFwxPFQ sPF╚OLpPOLAEdPLtPO), EwPO ušpPOLAfPOAELŇPLsPF (oPFbPLAvhPF├OOwOP), rPAvhPFwPOAsPFY WvUF EdPL sPFQ (EsPFnPL▓jPL▓)F|


    --špPOLBPOAtPOkFUOmPFArP mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAbPL, rPHPQËLšLdPLjPLQHPnPLkPPTPA, aAnPLËOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1392 ePHPM
EcPF└oP`LrPĐPnPL HPiËOdPzApPOLADPFzAbPL sPF╚OLpPOLAdPLkPP, rPHPQËLšLdPL-špPOLsPF╦P 4, aAnPLËOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1998



mFUisPFAElPEnPLrP EnPLmPFËFÝPLiNP 1926 sPFAilPrP jULnPL mPFAisPF rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP vhPFWvPFAElP yPAnPLF| usPFKPAinPL WvUFErPnPL SPFhPFirP 20iSPF jULnPL ePkPP mPFhPFtPOQ sPFBPOAbPL tPOA rP HP└oÍLŢtPOArP pPOLirP `┬LSPFABPOAElPipPOLA ePEBPOWvPF▓jPLkPPA nPLAimPF ePkPP mPFEhPFlPA kPPEHP EtPOnPLEWvPF HPAMlPA gPOAnPL kPPirPnPL -- 'uhPF umPFArP udPLHPtPOA', 'aAEmPF EcPFEnPL ugPOA EcPFEnPL' oPF 'yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL ukPPwvPO'F| usPFvhPF sPFfPOirPrP ŽmPFNPsPFE╦PnPLQ EnPLmPFYlPkFUOmPFArPQ mPFhPFlPAnPLEHPSPF ElPKPiCPFnPL: "EHPidPLSPFQ WPOLM-eP gPOAoPFbPLA hPFilPoPF tPOArP ŃO¸PidPLSPFQ rP╩PF cPFApPOLA pPOLiwxPFEnPLF| EHPiSPFXP kPPirP 'yPEdPL utPOArP wPOAkPP SFUinPL' gPOAnPLWvPFA uyPnPL EcPFrPkPPAilPrP ucPFnPLA sFUirPvhPF SFUnPLitPO upPOLlPAmPFF| u`šLSPFAtPOArP dPLlP kPPEHPrP sPF╦PQitPOrP aABPOAsPF upPOLibPL špPOLSPFMsPFAbPL wvPOęCPLŘOLEsPFtPO, hPFAtPOtPOAElP HPhUFżPPNP aArP TPAimPF nPLAF|" (98)

    --sPFmPFQrP usPFnPLgOUÔPL, gPOAinPLrP EpPOLCPFinPL rPHPQËLšLdPLnPLATP, pPOLzAEpPOLrPAsPF, 2008