gPOQtPOEHPtPOAnPL-GITABITAN
jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL-aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!

Photo

rPcPnPLA pPPErLLEcPEtPO

rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP:  1318 (EwPOisPFPrP,1911)
kPPEHPrP HPbPsLP: 50
rPcPFnPLAëPOAnPL: kPPlPkPPAtPOA
pPOLkPPASPF: mPFAGPL 1318 , tPOoFOLiHPAEDPFnPLQ pPOLEeOL`kPPA-BPOArPtPOEHPDPFAtPOA |
DPFmPFYsPFPQtPO (1914)F|

'The Morning Song of India' -- The Bengalee, Dec 1911; Poems 51 by the poet himself
gPOQtPOE`HPtPOAnPL(pPOLyPYAbPL;#/FpOL) OPidPLSPF-OPidPLSPF; 14/249
rPAgPO / tPOAlP: vhPFmPFnPL / kPPAhPFArPHPA
OPrPElPEpPOL: aAnPLOdPsPFPQtPO pPOLEeOL`kPPA(1325); gPOQtPOpPOLPOAESPFkPPA (1325); HPAikPP; sPFPQtPOgPOQtPOAPElP; BPOArPtPOtPOQTPY (1354); OPrPE`HPtPOAnPL 16 (gPOQtPOpPOLPOAESPFkPPA);OPrPE`HPtPOAnPL 47
OPrPE`lPEpPOLkPPArP : `FHPijPLLLdPLlPAlP gPOAUElP; EdPLinPLLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP; eP. eP. HPAikPP; BPOQmPFrPAoPF SPFAFPLQ; EdPLinPLLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP; e; e
pPOLAdPLWvPFQkPPA:
28iSPF EwPOisPFPrP 1911, ukPPAlPkPPAtPOAbPL kPPnPLiLgPFsPF aEDPFiHPSPFinPLrP EPtPOQbPL EdPLinPL gPOAnPLEWvPF wvPOiPADPFnPLQ sPFPQtPO EhPFisPFiHP gPOQtPO hPFbPLF| sPFOFpOLZNPY kPPAkPPtPOAlPQbPL uyP usPFsPFmPFbPL vhPFMlPzAiLPLrP sPF`LmLPAWvPF pPOLPOmPF jPLjPLY ukPPAlPkPPAtPOAbPL ECPFilPnPLF| ainPLikPP mPFinPL kPPirPnPL gPOAnPLEWvPF rPAjPLpPOLSPFEPF EhPFisPFiHP rPEcPFtPO; ePkPPTPA aAidPL sPFtPOz nPLbPLF| ePKPnPLoPF eP DFUibPLA oPFiVPF mPFAiJPF mPFAiJPFF| EHPSPFdPL tPOTPz nPLQicPF udPLoPFbPLA ugPOlPF|
28iSPF aiPOAHPrP 1937, ukPPAlPkPPAtPOArP kPPnPLiLgPFsPF oPFbPLAEkPPYM kPPEmPFEWvPF gPOAnPLEWvPFikPP BPOArPitPOrP jPLAtPOQbPL sPFPQitPOrP OPQkFOEtPO udPLbPL ePHPM OPADPFQnPLtPOA lPAiBPOrP pPOLrP uTPikPP pPOLTPmPF PFHPkPPEWvPF OPADPFQnPL BPOArPitPOrP jPLAtPOQbPL sPFPQtPOF|
pPOLAVPFiBPOdPL:
pPOLAPAHP EsPFU gOUjPLrPAWvPF mPFArPAVPFA...
tUOEmPF EcPFrPsPFArPETP
    [gPOQEHPnPL] 1mPF sPFM 1338F|


aAilPAcPFnPLA

jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPLaEDPFnPLAbPLkPP gPOAnPLEWvPF ukPPAinPLA wvPOpPOLlPPPz-EnPLrPipPOLPP BPOAiHP aAEmPF ElPiKPECPF EkPPnPLA tUOEnPL EjPLPPAsPFA kPPirPCPFF| HUJPFitPO pPOLArPECPF ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF EnPLibPL udPLiSPFrP ukPPAinPLA ukPPAinPLA mPFhPFilP uyP dLUHPYAikPPzrP wvPOPFHP hPFibPLiCPF tPOArPvhPF pPOLsPFiP pPOLSLPEWvPF utPOAmPFArP mPFinPL ujPLigPO wvPOVPFlPF| utPOAmPFArP EcPFEVPFrP jPLHPAHP EdPLECPF kPPlPihPFrP wvPOFPA HPAwxPFAHPArP jPLnPLz nPLbPL, e gPOAnPL rPcPFnPLA sPFPiP utPOAmPFArP ukPPtZOhPFlP umPFWvPFAHPArP jPLinPLzF|...

usPF HPsPFrP BPOArPtPOsPF`LmLPAiWvPFrP aAgPOmPFinPLrP aAibPLAjPLnPL cPFlPECPFlPF| rPAjPLsPFrPkPPAirP pPOLEtPOPOAHPAnPL aAmPFArP ukPPAinPLA HPU sPF`LmLPAiWvPFrP jPLbPLgPOAnPL rPcPFnPLArP jPLinPLz aAmPFAikPP EHPiSPFXP kPPirP anFUirPADPF jPLAEnPLibPLECPFilPnPLF| SFUinPL EHPEPFPtPO hPFibPLECPFlUmPF, usPFvhPF EHPPFPibPLrP sPFiP mPFinPL wvPOoP`LAipPOLrPoPF sPFPOArP hPFibPLECPFlPF| tPOArPvhPF pPOLHPlP pPOLEtPOEePbPLArP DPFAPLAbPL aAEmPF jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPLaEDPFnPLAbPLkPP gPOAinPL usPFvhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOArP jPLbPLiGPLAXPNPA kPPirPECPF, pPOLtPOnPLaBUOzdPLbPLHPUrP pPOLPFAbPL yUgPOyUgPODPFAEHPtPO yPAeOL`QidPLrP EyPEnPL EcPFrPsPFArPETP, EyPEnPL jPLnPLgPOiNPrP aPOyPYAmPFQ pPOLTPpPOLErPcPFAbPLkPP-- usPFvhPF yUgPO yUgPOAPOirPrP mPFAnPLHPBPOAgPOzrPTPcPFAlPkPP uyP pPOLPOmPF HPA XPPO HPA ukPPAinPLA jPLjPLYvhPF ukPPAinPLAePimPFvhPF hPFitPO pPOLAirPnPL nPLA, usPF kPPTPA rPAjPLBPOoPL HPUoPF anFUBPOHP kPPirPECPFilPnPLF| ukPPnPLnPLA tPOArP BPOEoPL yPtPOvhPF pPOLHPlP TPAkPP, HUEPrP aBPOAHP ECPFlP nPLAF| aAjPL mPFtPOiBPOdPLHPSPFtPO aAmPFArP pPOLEtPO eUݪP BPOAHPWvPFA dLUEcPFPOArP EHPXPbPL nPLbPL, EkPPUO HUEPMSPFWvPFA dLUlPYPPNPF| (246)

    --FpOLUElPnPLEHPhPFArPQ usPFnPLikPP ulPKPA EcPFEVPF, 20iSPF nPLiBPOPrP 1936


tUOEmPF uyP pPOLSLP kPPirPCPF eP rPkPPmPF aUFtPO pPOLSLP FpOLZiHPYoPF SFUinPLECPFF|

'pPOLtPOnPLaBUOzdPLbPL HPUrP ... EdPLnPLrPAEeOL`'-- SPFASLPtPO mPFAnPLHP-vhPFEtPOhPFAisPFrP yUgPOyUgPODPFAEHPtPO pPOLETPkPPidPLrP rPTPyPAeOL`AbPL EcPFrPsPFArPETP HPilP aAEmPF cPFtUOTPY HPA pPOLPOmPF jPLijPLYrP PFHP kPPrPitPO pPOLAErP, ePrPkPPmPF apPOLErPEmPFtPO mFZWLxPOtPOA aAmPFArP sPFPiP yPArPA sPFiOdPhPF kPPrPitPO pPOLAirPnPL tPOAidPLrP pPOLiSLPrP wvPOoP`LrP udPLoPFbPLA aAPAHPmPFAnPLnPLAF| (247)

    --sFUDPFArPAnPLQ usPFnPLikPP ulPKPA EcPFEVPF, 29iSPF mPFAcPFY, 1929 (?)


'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPLaEDPFnPLAbPLkPP' gPOAnPLWvPFArP uyP mPFAeOL`AEDPFikPPzrP kPPTPA HPilPCPF usPFWvPFA anPLzAbPL HPlP EnPLF| e HPAhUFilPzrP jPLinPLz 'pPOLPAHP' SPFiPrP pPOLTPmPF EsPFilPHPlPWvPFAikPP EPtPOQbPL pPOLidPLrP ugPOiWvPFrP HPAvhPFirP dPLAwxPF kPPErPibPL rPAEKP--

    pPOLnPLF| jPLAHP EsPFU gOUjPLrPAWvPF mPFrPAVPFA vhPFtPOzAEdPLF|

'pPOLPAHP'ukPP 'pPOLPHP' kPPirP nPLAmPFWvPFArP aAkPPArP KPHPY kPPrPitPO sPFAhPFsPF hPFbPLEnPL, oPFWvPFA dPLQGPLYkPPAbPLAidPLrP udPLSPFF| CPFiOdPrP aEtPOErPoPL aMiSPFrP jPLnPLz ePkPPWvUF tPOfPOAitPO aAsPFnPL upPOLitPO udPLoPFbPLA rPQEtPO HPA gPOQEtPO EHPrPqP nPLbPLF| [18 aiPOAHPrP 1929]...

'jPLnPLgPONP' gPOAnPL yPKPnPL ElPiKPECPFilPmPF tPOKPnPL 'mPFArPAVPFA' HPAnPLAnPL kPPErP EnPLF| mPFrPAEVPFrPAoPF pPOLTPmPF HPiNPY aAkPPArP udPLbPL nPLAF| tPOArP pPOLirP yPArPA uSPFADPFnPL kPPirPiCPFnPL tPOArPAvhPF EnPLrPAkPPArPikPP sPFAkPPArP kPPirP tUOilPiCPFnPL, aAmPFArP ucPFAiKP pPOLiwxPF EnPLF| [10vhPF nPLiBPOPrP 1929]

    --EdPLlPQpPOLkFUOmPFArP rPAbPLikPP ulPKPA dLUEWvPF EcPFEVPF


    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, sPFPQtPOEcPFPOA, EHPSLPBPOArPtPOQ 1373



 

 

14

jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL-aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!
pPOLPAHP EsPFU gOUjPLrPAWvPF mPFrPAVPFA dPAEHPwxPF wvPOkPPlP HPP
EHPPz EhPFmPFAcPFlP yPmFUnPLA gPOPA wvPOCPFlPjPLlPEDPFtPOrPP
     tPOHP SFUBPO nPLAimPF jPLAigPO,   tPOHP SFUBPO aAESPFsPF mPFAigPO,
               gPOAihPF tPOHP jPLbPLgPOATPAF|
jPLnPLgPONPmPFPlPdPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!
     jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL, jPLbPL uhPFF|F|

ahPFrPhPF tPOHP aAhOHPAnPL pPOLcPFAErPtPO, SFUEnPL tPOHP wvPOdPLArP HPANPQ
EhPFOdLU uHPP ESPFKP ujPLnPL pPOLArPEsPFkPP mFUsPFlPmPFAnPL KLOFWvPFAnPLQ
     FpOLZrPHP pPOLEcPFmPF aAisPF   tPOHP EsPFMhPFAsPFnPL-pPOLAiSPF
               upPOLmPFhPFArP hPFbPL gPOATPAF|
jPLnPLgPONP-ekPPz-EHPDPFAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!
     jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL, jPLbPL uhPFF|F|

pPOLtPOnPL-aBUOzdPLbPL-HPUrP pPOLPFA, yUgPO-yUgPO DPFAEHPtPO yPAeOL`QF|
uhPF EcPFrPsPFArPETP, tPOHP rPTPcPFieP mFUKPErPtPO pPOLTP EdPLnPLrPAEeOL`F|
     dPLArPqNP EHPpPFHP-mPFAiJPF   tPOHP SPFPDOHPEnPL HPAijPL
               sPFMkPPWvPFdLUKPeOL`AtPOAF|
jPLnPLgPONPpPOLTPpPOLErPcPFAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!
     jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL, jPLbPL uhPFF|F|

uGPLArPEtPOEmPFrPGPLnPL EnPLEHPwxPF EnPLSPFQiTP pPOLQEwxPFtPO mFZECPFYtPO udPLiSPF
jPLALgPFtPO ECPFlP tPOHP aEHPcPFlP mPFPlP nPLtPOnPLbPLinPL aEnPLimPFiXPF|
     dLUOPipFP aAtPOiPO   rPPPA kPPErPilP aiPO
               usPhPFmPFbPLQ tUOEmPF mPFAtPOAF|
jPLnPLgPONPdLUKPeOL`AbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA!
     jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL, jPLbPL uhPFF|F|

rPAEeOL` pPOLBPOAEtPOlP, wvPOEdPLlP rPEHPCPFEHP FpOLZHPY-wvPOdPLbPLEgPOErPBPOAilP--
gPOAihPF EHPhPFPmPF, FpOLUNPz sPFmPFQrPNP nPLHPjPLQHPnPLrPsPF WPOLAilPF|
     tPOHP kPPrPqNPArPqNPrPAigPO   EnPLEdPtPO BPOArPtPO jPLAigPO
               tPOHP cPFrPiNP nPLtPO mPFATPAF|
jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL rPAijPLSLPrP BPOArPtPOBPOAgPOzEHPDPFAtPOA
     jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL uhPF, jPLbPL jPLbPL jPLbPL, jPLbPL uhPFF|F|

Portrait

EHPEHPDPF tPOTPz oP aAilPAcPFnPLA:

51

T  HOU art the ruler of the minds of all
     people,
Thou Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts
of the Punjab, Sind, Gujrat and Maratha,
of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal.
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and
     Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jumna and Ganges,
and is chanted by the waves of the
     Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessing and sing thy
     praise,
Thou Dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

Day and night,. thy voice goes out from
     land to land,
calling Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains
     round thy throne
and Parsees, Mussalmans and Christians.
Offerings are brought to thy shrine by
     the East and the West
to be woven in a garland of love.
Thou bringest the hearts of all peoples
     into the harmony of one life,
Thou Dispenser of Iridia's destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

Eternal Charioteer, thou drivest man's
     history
along the road rugged with rises and falls
     of Nations.
Amidst all tribulations and terror
thy trumpet sounds to hearten those that
     despair and droop,
and guide all people in their paths of
     peril and pilgrimage.
Thou Dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, Vicrory, Victory to thee.

When the long dreary night was dense
     with gloom
and the country lay still in a stupor,
thy Mother's arms held her,
thy wakeful eyes bent upon her face,
till she was rescued from the dark evil
    dreams
that oppressed her spirit,
Thou Dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

The night dawns, the sun rises in the East,
the birds sing, the morning breeze brings
     a stir of new life.
Touched by golden rays of thy love
India wakes up and bends her head at
     thy feet.
Thou King of all Kings,
Thou Dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

Poems: a collection of one hundred and thirty poems, all but fifteen of which have been translated by the Poet himself. Edited by Krishna Kripalani, Amiya Chakrabarty and others.

    --Rabindranath Tagore, Poems, Visva-Bharati, 1942



1911 sPFinPLrP pPOLcPFApPOLWvPF:

rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP jPLgPO:  SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOinPL pPOLPOASPFtPOmPF jPLiOLPAsPFHPF| tPOoFOLiHPAEDPFnPLQ pPOLEeOL`kPPArP (ePKPnPL uTPikPP SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOnPL `FHPPFcPFyPYA`LSPFimPFrP mFUKPpPOLeOL`) sPFOLpPOLAdPLnPLArP BPOArP LgPFhPFNPF| 'acPFlPAbPLtPOnPL' oPF 'wPOAkPPGPLrP' rPcPFnPLAF| 'jPLQHPnPLPFEtPO'rP DPFArPAHPAEhPFkPP pPOLkPPASPF SFUrPqF| pPOLkPPASPF: SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOnPL 12-13, uCPFAWvPFgPOP (uCPFAWvPFidPLrP wvPOpPOLiyPAgPOQ)F|

HPEhPFEHPYiSLP: 12vhPF EwPOisPFPrP pPOLPOmPF jPLijPLYrP aEBPOiXPkPP ePHPM usPFvhPF wvPOpPOLlPiPPz HPPBPOP rPdPL hPFbPLF| 27iSPF EwPOisPFPrP kPPlPkPPAtPOArP kPPMiLgPFsPF aEDPFiHPSPFinPL 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL" gPOQtPOF| umPFAhPFnPLHPAgPOAnPL aAvhPF. ePfPO. eP SPFQOOwOP EjPLtPOilPA E`FHPEWvPFSPF dPLlPikPP hPFAErPibPLF| mPFAUO rPAjPLHPMiSPFrP pPOLtPOnPL oPF sPFAnPL-vhPFbPLA-usPFinPLrP wvPOidPLzAigPO cPFQinPL pPOLjPLAtPOiFPLrP pPOLEtPOPOAF| hPFElPwvPOiwPO pPOLTPmPF cPFlPELcPFeOL` EnPLEmPFYtPOF| HPAvhPFSPF KPLPL EHPSLPikPPAXP sPFmPFAPLF| BPOEgPOnPLQ EnPLiHPEdPLtPOArP mFtUOzF|


    --pPOLBPOAtPOkFUOmPFArP mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAbPL, rPHPQLLdPLjPLQHPnPLkPPTPA, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1392 ePHPM
EcPFoP`LrPPnPL HPiOdPzApPOLADPFzAbPL sPFOLpPOLAdPLkPP, rPHPQLLdPL-pPOLsPFP 4, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1998



rPHPQLLdPLsPFPQitPO kPPTPArP wvPOLcPFArPiNP nPLAnPLA EHPkFOEtPO lPPPz kPPrPA yPAbPLF|...

1) OPrPHPiNPYrP EHPkFOEtPO HPA GPLirPAbPLA wvPOLcPFArPiNPrP pPOLBPOAHPF| uyPmPFnPL-- (kPP) jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF gPOAnPLEWvPFrP uPPieOL`--jPLinPLAgPOiNPAmPFinPLA aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLibPLA uhPFF|  (KP) aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ gPOAnPLEWvPFrP uPPieOL`-- oPFvhPF BUOHPinPLAimPFAnPL-mFUEhPFnPLQF|

2) sPFEfPOEOFWvPFikPPiWvPFwPO wvPOLcPFArPNP: pPOLAbPLvhPF udPLKPA yPAbPL sPF ePrP wvPOLcPFArPNP hPFbPL vhPFMirPEjPL
sh ePrP mPFitPOAF| tPOA CPFAwxPFA a-kPPAirPrP wvPOLcPFArPNP EHPkFOtPO kPPirP aA-kPPAirPrP mPFtPOnPL kPPirPoPF hPFbPLF|

3) tOtPOQbPLtPO kPPTPArP aMiSPF hPFsPFiPOrP HPzHPhPFArPF|... uyPmPFnPL 'aAnPLOdP' hPFbPL 'aAnPLnPLnPL-P'F| 'aAmPFArP mPFlPlP-E`lPkPPA HPinPL' kPPAinPL ePisPF DPFAtPOHP aAoPFbPLAijPLrP mPFitPOA lPAigPOF| aTPHPA 'mPFnPL umPFArP umPFiGPLrP sPFPQ' ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPFitPO 'ErPEmPF EJPFmPF ErPEmPF EJPFmPF' ePrP HPdPLilP 'ErPmPF EJPFmPFmPF... 'ErPmPF EJPFmPFmPF... 'ErPmPF EJPFmPFmPF' gPOAoPFbPLA hPFbPLF| aAilPAcPFnPLA pPOLsPFiP mPFinPL pPOLwxPFiCPF rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF rPcPFnPLA kPPirPvhPF pPOLTPmPF yPKPnPL aAmPFAikPP uSPFKPAECPFilPnPL tPOKPnPL HPArPHPArP kPPirP ePvhPF aMSPFEWvPF ePHPM "POLEcPF POLEcPF cPFEkPPtPO tPOEwxPFtPO aAilPAikPP', ePvhPF aMSPFgOUElPrP yPTPAyPTP wvPOLcPFArPNP EnPLijPL ugPOibPL udPLEKPibPL yPAcPFAvhPF kPPirP EnPLibPLECPFilPnPLF| ...


    --uSPFlPjPLArPPnPL mPFjULmPFdPLArP, "rPHPQLLdPLsPFMgPOQtPO ESPFPPApPOLsPFP", rPHPQLLdPL BPOAHPnPLA, 2000 yUOLP sPFMKPzA, uWvPFigPOArP ErPsPFAcPFY vhPFnPLEOFWvPFWvUFWvPF, kPPlPkPPAtPOA  (FpOL 15)


ePvhPF HPsPFrP [1317 HPPAP] 11vhPF mPFAGPL rPAieOL` ujPLAwxPFAsPFAikPPArP HPAEwxPFrP wvPOsPFiHP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP aAcPFAyPY hPFvhPFiHPnPL SFUEnPLbPLAECPFlPAmPFF| ... rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP wvPOiPADPFnPL oPF wvPOpPOLidPLiSPFrP BPOArP lPvhPFbPLAECPFilPnPL, OPADPFzAibPLrP BPOArP ECPFlP cPFiPOApPOLADPFzAbPL-mPFhPFASPFibPLrP [EcPFPOAmPFENP cPFiPOApPOLADPFzAbPL] wvPOpPOLrPF| wvPOpPOLidPLiSPFrP pPOLrP dLU-lPAvhPFnPL gPOAnPL gPOAEhPFbPLA rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP uSPFXP kPPErPilPnPLF| gPOAnPLgOUElP yPEdPLoPF ainPLkPP nPLAmPFkPPrPA oPFPFAdPLrPA gPOAEhPFilPnPL, tPOHU SFUEnPLitPO EkPPCUF BPOAilPA lPAEgPOlP nPLAF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP EpPOLCPFnPL EfPOErPbPLA ainPLkPPHPArP gPOAinPLrP sFUrP oPF tPOAlP sPFMiSPFADPFnPL kPPErPbPLA EdPLilPnPL, tPOAhPFAitPOoPF sFUEHPDPFA hPFbPL nPLA udPLEKPbPLA EnPLijPLvhPF gPOAbPLkPPidPLrP sPFiP gPOAnPL DPFErPbPLA EdPLilPnPLF| 'jPLQHPnPL yPKPnPL SFUkPPAibPL yPAbPL', ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF pPOLTPmPF SFUEnPLlPAmPF usPFvhPF EdPLnPLF| aArP SFUEnPLlPAmPF 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP'F| ePvhPF mPFhPFA-sPFMgPOQtPOEWvPF kPPbPLEdPLnPL aAigPOvhPF rPEcPFtPO hPFvhPFbPLAECPFlPF| (38)

    --sPFQtPOA udPLHPQ, FpOLUNPzPFEtPO, EjPLPPAsPFA, kPPlPkPPAtPOA, 1390


ePvhPF 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL-aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP' rPcPFnPLAEWvPF kPPEHP EHPidPLiSPF ePkPPAEDPFkPP anFUPOAinPL aAHEoP`L kPPirPiCPFnPLF| 27iSPF aiPOAHPrP 1926, rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP hPFAiPErPrP HUwPOAipPOLPF SPFhPFirP HPoLtPOArP pPOLirP HPAMlPAbPL rPEcPFtPO dLUEWvPF kPPEHPtPOA pPOLwxPFilPnPL, ePkPPEWvPF FpOLZrPHPQrP kPPEHPtPOA aArP ePkPPEWvPF e 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL-aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP'F| uSPFiXPAoPL rPcPFnPLA pPOLwxPFHPArP aAigPO uGPLAXPNPA kPPrPA hPFlP uyP, ePEWvPF BPOArPitPOrP ePkPPEWvPF jPLAtPOQbPL sPFMgPOQtPOF| 'kPPEHP uyPvhPF kPPEHPtPOAEWvPF aArPPF kPPrPilPnPL, amPFEnPL GPLrPsFUP sPFmPFPF ulPAkPP wvPOiVPF dPLAEwxPFibPL PFP hPFibPL SFUnPLlP'F|  -- EnPLmPFYlPkFUOmPFArPQ mPFhPFlPAnPLHPQSPFF|

    --pPOLATPY HPsFU, "gPOAbPLkPP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP", aAnPLOdP - 1393


dPLEPPNP BPOArPtPO pPOLErPePmPFAbPL uHPErPibPL 1919-ePrP ufPO`FHPqbPLAErPitPO rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP mPFdPLnPLpPOL`lPQitPO upPOLCPFilPnPLF| mPFdPLnPLpPOL`lPQ ETPoPFisPFAEfPOkPPAlP kPPilPijPLrP aDPFzPP ujPLmPFsPF ePvhPFcPF kPPAEjPLnPLsPF ePkPP sPFBPOArP aAibPLAjPLnPL kPPirPnPLF| usPFvhPF sPFBPOAbPL gPOAnPL kPPrPilPnPL rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF'F| usPFvhPF gPOAinPLrP sFUrP ePHPM aTPY kPPilPjPL kPPtOYpPOLPPikPP atPOzPO aEBPOBZOtPO kPPirPECPFlP HPilP jPLAnPLA yPAbPL; usPFvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPFvhPF pPOLEtPOPOAinPL pPOLEtPOEdPLinPLrP azAisPFPElP sPFM HPA uHPtPOAElPkPP rPipPOL pPOLcPFElPtPO hPFibPL ugPOlPF| (56)

1930-ePrP usPFiLWvPFPirP ujPLEnPLBPOA uTPikPP usPFAEBPOibPLWvPF rPAESPFbPLAitPO ePisPF mPFiFFkPPA pPOLAibPLAEnPLbPLsPFY kPPmFUzinPL HPAlPkPP-HPAElPkPPAidPLrP kPPAiCPF aBPOzTPYnPLA upPOLilPnPLF| usPFKPAinPL pPOLiSLPAoP`LirPrP pPOLHPY uSPFXP hPFilP tPOArPA rPHPQLLdPLnPLATPikPP gPOAnPL kPPrPitPO anFUirPADPF kPPrPlPF| kPPEHP tPOAidPLrP uSPFAnPLAilPnPL 'jPLnPLgPONPmPFnPL aEDPFnPLAbPLkPP jPLbPL uhPF'F| anFUmPFAnPL EHPidPLiSPF ePvhPF tPOArP uSPFXP gPOAoPFbPLAF| (68)

    --pPOLATPY HPsFU, "gPOAbPLkPP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP", aAnPLOdP - 1393-utPO wvPOtPO