gPOQtPOEHPtPOAnPL-GITABITAN
aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ, mPFA

Manuscript

rPcPnPLA pPPErLLEcPEtPO

rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP:  1303 (1896)
kPPEHPrP HPbPsLP: 35
pPOLkPPASPF: mPFAGPL 1303 , BPOArPtPOQ |
kPPPnPLA (1307)-BPOArPtPOlPPQ rP-rP 7;kPPAHPzLgPFPF 8 (EHPEHPDPF)F|

Echoes from East and West - Robi Dutt
gPOQtPOE`HPtPOAnPL(pPOLyPYAbPL;#/FpOL) OPidPLSPF-OPidPLSPF; 23/257
rPAgPO / tPOAlP: uBPOrPHPQ / kPPAhPFArPHPA
OPrPElPEpPOL: BPOArPtPOQ; HPQNPAHPAEdPLnPLQ;SPFtPOgPOAnPL;BPOArPtPOtPOQTPY; OPrPE`HPtPOAnPL 47
OPrPE`lPEpPOLkPPArP : sPFrPlPA udPLHPQ; e; e; e; e
pPOLAdPLWvPFQkPPA:
"kPPElPkPPAtPOArP ujPLAwxPFAsPFAikPPArP HPAEWvPFitPO kPPnPLiLgPFisPFrP aBPOzAgPOtPOgPONP aAmPFEFPLtPO hPFnPL 1896 EwPOisPFPirPF| aBPOzAgPOtPOgPOiNPrP mPFiDPFz dPLEPPNP aAE`FfPOLkPPArP HPzAErPOFWvPFArP EmPF umPFAhPFnPLdPLAsPF kPPrPmPFcPFAdPL gPOAPQoPF ECPFilPnPLF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP usPFvhPF sPFmPFibPL tPOAhPFArP nPLHPrPEcPFtPO gPOAnPL 'aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ' gPOAEhPFbPLAECPFilPnPLF| "  -- 'jPLQHPinPLrP JPFrPApPOLAtPOA', sPFrPlPA udPLHPQ
pPOLAVPFiBPOdPL:
aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ mPFA   -- [gPOQEHPnPL] 1mPF sPFM 1338F|


aAilPAcPFnPLA

ePkPPEdPLnPL aAmPFArP pPOLrPilPAkPPgPOtPO HPU uhPFmPFcPFLLdPL mPFE`lPkPP EHPEpPOLnPL pPOLAlP mPFhPFASPFbPLikPP sPFiP kPPirP ePkPPEWvPF anFUirPADPF EnPLibPL aAmPFArP kPPAiCPF ePisPFECPFilPnPLF| tPOAidPLrP kPPTPA ECPFlP ePvhPF uyP, EHPiSPFXPBPOAiHP dLUgPOYAmFZEtPOYrP sPFiP mPFAtOBZOEmPFrP udPLHPQrPpPOL EmPFElPibPL EdPLibPL tPOArPA SPFArPdPLQbPLA FpOLZjPLArP anFUPOAnPLikPP nFZtPOnPLBPOAiHP udPLiSPF pPOLHPEtPOYtPO kPPrPitPO cPFAnPL, tPOArP wvPOpPOLyUoPL BPOEoPL oPF wvPOPQpPOLnPLA EmPFE`LSPFtPO PFiHPrP gPOAnPL rPcPFnPLA kPPrPHPArP jPLnPLz aAmPFArP pPOLEtPO tPOAidPLrP ECPFlP EHPiSPFXP anFUirPADPFF| aAEmPF aOPQkPPArP kPPirP HPilPECPFlUmPF eP BPOEoPL aAmPFArP aAPOErPkPP hPFitPO pPOLAirP nPLA; sFUtPOrPAM ePitPO aAmPFArP apPOLrPAiDPFrP kPPArPNP GPLWvPFiHPF| EHPXPbPLWvPFA yPEdPL ukPPHPlP sPFAEhPFtPOziPPieOL`rP aEDPFkPPArPgPOtPO uhPFAitPOA tPOAhPFilP aAmPFArP DPFmPFYEHPSLPAsPF yPAvhPF uhPFAkPP aAmPFArP pPOLiPP tPOAitPO sPFMikPPAicPFrP kPPArPNP TPAkPPitPOA nPLA; EkPPUO BPOEoPLrP uPPieOL` FpOLZjPLArP uPPieOL` anPLEDPFkPPArP pPOLiHPSPF gPOhPFYNPQbPLF| aAmPFArP HPUrPA sPFUOPL hPFnPLEnPLF| aAEmPF rPcPFnPLA kPPirPECPFlUmPF 'BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ', eP gPOAnPL FpOLZjPLAmPFLPLipPOLrP uyPAgPOz nPLbPL usPF kPPTPA HPlPA HPAhUFlPzF| apPOLrPpPOLiPP eP kPPTPAoPF OPQkPPArP kPPrPitPO hPFiHP uyP eP gPOAnPL sPFHPYjPLnPLQnPL BPOArPtPOrPAFPL sPFBPOAbPL gPOAHPArP wvPOpPOLyUoPL nPLbPL ukPPnPLnPLA eP kPPEHPtPOAEWvPF ePkPPAPOBPOAiHP EhPFOdLU sPFMFFkFOEtPO aA`LSPFbPL kPPirP rPEcPFtPOF| aEhPFOdLUrP ePWvPFA sFUpPOLErPEcPFtPOBPOAiHP mPFmPFYPmPF hPFiHP nPLAF| (246)

    --FpOLUElPnPLEHPhPFArPQ usPFnPLikPP ulPKPA EcPFEVPF, 20iSPF nPLiBPOPrP 1936


    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, sPFPQtPOEcPFPOA, EHPSLPBPOArPtPOQ 1373



wvPOpPOLErPwvPOoPL kPPMiLgPFsPF aEDPFiHPSPFinPL sPFmPFiHPtPO kPPiPO gPOQtPO 'aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ'rP gPOAbPLkPPidPLrP mPFiDPFz ECPFilPnPL atUOlPpPOLsPFAdPL usPFnPLF| EtPOEnPL ElPKPiCPFnPL: "pPOLAbPL EeOL`SPF HPsPFrP FpOLZiHPY kPPElPkPPAtPOAbPL ePkPPHPArP kPPMiLgPFisPFrP aEDPFiHPSPFnPL hPFbPLF| BPOArPitPOrP nPLAnPLA pPOLidPLSPF hPFvhPFitPO HPhUFsPFMKPzkPP gPONPzmPFAnPLz pPOLEtPOEnPLEDPFrPA aAEsPFbPLAECPFilPnPLF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP tPOAhPFAEdPLgPOikPP ujPLAwxPFAsPFAikPPArP HPAEwxPFitPO aAmPFFPLNP kPPErPbPLAECPFilPnPLF| pPOLHPAsPFQrPA HPAMlPA jPLAinPLnPL nPLA, aPOtPO pPOLAPlP pPOLcPFElPtPO HPAMlPA uHPAiJPFnPL nPLA aTPcPF ainPLikPPvhPF sPFMFFkFOtPO jPLAinPLnPL, tPOAvhPF sPFMFFkFOtPOHPhUFlP ePkPPEWvPF aFpOLZHPY BPOArPtPO-sPFMgPOQtPO rPcPFnPLA kPPErPbPLAECPFilPnPLF| EtPOEnPL EnPLijPL aAmPFAidPLrP ainPLkPPikPP usPFvhPF gPOAnPL ESPFKPAvhPFbPLAECPFilPnPLF| mPFinPL aAiCPF HPhUFkPPiPO oPF HPhUF HPAdPLzyPiFPLrP sPFiP aAmPFrPA usPFvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF gPOAEhPFbPLAECPFlPAmPFF| aAmPFAidPLrP sPFkPPlPikPPvhPF-- FpOLUrPqXP oPF mPFEhPFlPA-- BPOdPHPsPFnPL pPOLErPDPFAnPL kPPErPitPO hPFvhPFbPLAECPFlPF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP EnPLijPL aAmPFAidPLrP unPLtPOAF|"  (79)

    --sPFmPFQrP usPFnPLgOUPL, gPOAinPLrP EpPOLCPFinPL rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, pPOLzAEpPOLrPAsPF, 2008


KLUHPvhPF aAcPFiyPYrP EHPXPbPL, ePvhPF gPOAnPL [aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ] rPcPFnPLArP pPOLAbPL wvPOEnPLSPF HPCPFrP pPOLrP HPAMlPA sPFAmPFEbPLkPP pPOLeOL`-pPOLEeOL`kPPAbPL gPOAnPLEWvPFikPP ukPPLLdPL kPPirP ePkPPEWvPF apPOLQEtPOkPPrP HPAdPLAnFUHPAidPLrP aAHPtPOY sFEPL hPFibPLECPFlPF| sPFAEhPFtPOz pPOLEeOL`kPPAbPL 'sPFAEhPFitPOz rPqEcPF oPF nPLQEtPO' pPOLHPiP 1322 HPPAiP amPFirPLLdPLnPLATP rPAbPL ElPiKPECPFilPnPL, "udPLSPFmPFAtOkPPArP rPpPOL HPNPYnPLA kPPErPitPO yPAvhPFbPLAoPF kPPEHP EnPLijPLrP EHPkFOtPO rPqEcPF WPOLAEkPPitPO pPOLAirPnPL nPLAvhPFF| HPElPitPOiCPFnPL aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQF| jPLnPLnPLQrP rPipPOLrP kPPTPA EkPP ePmPFnPL kPPErPbPLA HPElPitPO aAiCPF?"

. . . aGPLYz pPOLEeOL`kPPArP sPFOLpPOLAdPLkPP mPFPOHPz kPPirPnPL "jPLgPOOLPAtPOAikPP yPEdPLoPF HPA BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ HPlPA yPAbPL udPLSPFmPFAtPOAikPP EkPPCUFitPOvhPF tPOAhPFA HPlPA yPAbPL nPLAF|" (14)


    --arPqNPkFUOmPFArP HPsFU, 'aAmPFArP aApPOLnPL gPOAnPL', ePkFUOSPFSPFtPOkPP, 1418


uBPOrPHPQ sFUirPrP umPFAcPFwxPFgOUilPA kPPAinPL ePilP jPLgPOitPOrP pPOLEtPO ePkPP rPkPPmPF EHPEcPFeOL` BPOAiHPrP wvPOdPLbPL hPFbPL... mPFinPL hPFbPL ePkPPWvPFA EnPLbPLimPFrP hPFPF aEHP`LSPFAmPF aAEgPOYnPL yPiFPLrP hPFAtPOA uGPLArPAiCPF ePHPM usPFvhPF GPLXPYNPiHPdPLnPLAbPL sPFmPFPF EHPSLP`FHPPFAiLPLrP mPFmPFYPOlP hPFitPO ePkPPWvPFA gPOPFQrP kPPAtPOrP kPPrPqNP rPAEgPONPQ wvPOCPLOLEsPFtPO hPFibPL wvPOVPFiCPF-- sPFkPPAlP uHPlPAkPPArP sFZiyPYrP sPFmPFPF aAilPA `LmLPLAnPL hPFibPL ePisPFiCPF, gPOACPFpPOLAlPArPA EnPLPFP hPFibPL kPPQ uyPnPL SFUnPLiCPF ePHPM aAkPPASPF ePkPPWvPFA EHPSLPHPzApPOLQ a`LSPFqrP HPAiOpPF uyPnPL aACPFnP hPFibPL rPibPLiCPF-- aTPYA, dLZrP aAkPPAiSPFrP EdPLikPP cPFAvhPFilP mPFinPL hPFbPL uyPnPL ePkPPWvPFA aEnPLimPFXP nPLQlP ucPFAKP ukPPHPlP CPFlPCPFlP kPPirP ucPFibPL aAiCPFF|
    kPPlPkPPAtPOA, jULnPL 1889  #3


a[HPnPL?] oPF HPAEwxPFitPO tPOAidPLrP ePkPP tPOlPArP GPLirP HPisPF ePsPFrPAijPL uBPOrPHPQ aAlPApPOL kPPrPiCPF, aAEmPF utPOtPOlPArP ukPPAiNPrP GPLirP HPisPF POpPOLPL SFUnPLitPO pPOLAECPFF| utPOArP EcPFEVPFitPOoPF tUOvhPF mPFAWvPFAiPrP uBPOrPHPQ aAlPAipPOLrP kPPTPA ElPiKPECPFsPFF| aAjPLkPPAlP sPFkPPAilP udPLKPitPO udPLKPitPO uHPlPA dPLSPFWvPFA ePgPOAirPAWvPFA dLUFpOLUrP hPFibPL yPAbPL-- EdPLnPLWvPFA yPtPOvhPF wvPOoP`LPL hPFibPL wvPOVPFitPO TPAikPP mPFnPLWvPFAoPF tPOtPOvhPF ePkPP rPkPPmPF wvPOdPLAsPFQnPL hPFibPL aAisPF; tPOArP wvPOpPOLrP kPPAinPL yPKPnPL HPArPPArP uBPOrPHPQrP atPOzPO kPPrPqNP EmPFnPLEtPOrP uKPAcPF lPAgPOitPO TPAikPP tPOKPnPL aAkPPAiSPFrP mPFiDPFz, urPidPrP mPFiDPFz, ePkPPWvPFA pPOLkPPALPL uHPrPAgPOz HPzAPL hPFibPL yPAbPLF| kPPmPFYE`FkPPPL sPFiOdPhPFpPOLQEwxPFtPO EHPibPLAgPOiSPFAkPPkPPAtPOrP sPFMsPFAirPrP EBPOtPOrPkPPArP uyP EcPFrPPOAbPLQ sFUgPOBPOQrP dLUKPEWvPF, uBPOrPHPQ rPAEgPONPQitPO usPFvhPFEWvPFikPP ePikPPHPAirP EHPgPOElPtPO kPPirP uHPrP kPPirP EnPLibPL aAisPFF| mPFAnFUiXP mPFAnFUiXP sPFOLpPOLikPPYrP mPFiDPFz uyP-ePkPPEWvPF EnPLtPOziSPFAkPP EnPLtPOzBPObPL EnPLtPOzEmPFnPLEtPOrP BPOAHP aAiCPF, aAmPFAidPLrP hFdPLbPL wvPOdPLGPLAWvPFnPL kPPirP uBPOrPHPQ usPFvhPF kPPAnPAkPPAEWvPF mFUoPL kPPirP udPLbPL-- aAmPFAidPLrP uHPdPLnPLArP sPFiP jPLgPOdPLHPzApPOLQ uHPdPLnPLArP sPFOLpPOLkPPY POApPOLnPL kPPirP udPLbPLF| sPFEtPOzvhPF utPOA aAmPFAidPLrP EkPPCUFvhPF POAbPLQ nPLbPL, EkPPUO pPOLkFOEtPO kPPQ ePkPP aUFtPO mPFFPLHPilP usPFvhPF kPPTPAEWvPFvhPF aAmPFAidPLrP sPFHPYdPLA BUOElPibPL urPiKPiCPF-usPFvhPFjPLinPLzvhPF aAmPFrPA wvPOsPFAihPFrP sPFEhPFtPO sPFMsPFAirPrP kPPAjPL kPPrPitPO pPOLAErPF| uBPOrPHPQitPO usPFvhPF EcPFrPsPFtPOz usPFvhPF mFtUOziHPdPLnPLA pPOLkPPASPF hPFibPL pPOLiwxPF; aAmPFAidPLrP ePvhPF kPPTPA HPilP udPLbPL uyP, aAmPFrPA yPA-EkPPCUF jPLAEnPL tPOArP EkPPCUFvhPF TPAkPPiHP nPLA ePHPM yPA EcPFrPkPPAlP TPAkPPiHP tPOArP aAmPFrPA EkPPCUFvhPF jPLAEnPL unPLF|
  --kPPlPkPPAtPOA, 21 nPLiBPOPrP 1894; 6.8.1301 #177


[EkPPUO] aAjPL sPFkPPAilP ePkPPWvPFA sPFAnPLAvhPFibPLitPO uBPOrPHPQ HPAjPLAECPFlP, ePmPFEnPL aEtPOErPoPL EmPFEPL lPAgPOECPFlP uyP usPF aArP kPPQ HPlPHP-- aAmPFArP ucPFAiKPrP sPFAmPFinPLkPPArP SFZnPLz aAkPPASPF ePHPM HPAtPOAsPF pPOLyPYPO ePkPPWvPFA aPOrPEnPLrPqP ePOdPinPLrP aAiHPigPO uyPnPL OOfPOLQtPO hPFibPL wvPOVPFECPFlP-- HPiwxPFA kPPAtPOrP EkPPUO HPiwxPFA sFUOdPrP-- usPFvhPF sFUrPWvPFAvhPF gPOlPAbPL ukPPnPL uyP utPOmPFnPL kPPirP aAisPF nPLA HUJPFitPO pPOLAErP unPLF| mPFAnFUiXPrP gPOlPArP ucPFibPL kPPAsPFArP nPLilPrP EBPOtPOirP ukPPnPL ePtPO uHPESPF BPOAHP pPOLkPPASPF kPPirP! ePKPnPL aAHPArP tPOArPA mFUlPtPOAnPL HPAjPLAiCPF-- mPFnPLWvPFA HPiwxPFAvhPF wvPOdPLAsPF kPPirP EdPLibPLiCPF-- FpOLETPHPQrP ePvhPF sPFmPFPF sPFHUjPL dLiSPFzrP wvPOpPOLirP ePkPPEWvPF a`LSPFqHPAiOpPFrP aAHPrPNP uWvPFinPL EdPLibPLiCPF-- ePkPPpPOLdPLYA mFUlPtPOAnPL rPAEgPONPQrP EBPOtPOrP EdPLibPL sPFmPFPF jPLgPO udPLKPA yPAiCPFF| yPEdPL sPFHP sPFmPFibPLvhPF ePvhPFrPkPPmPF ePkPP-ePkPPWvPFA rPAEgPONPQrP EBPOtPOrP EdPLibPL jPLgPO udPLKPA uyPtPO tPOA hPFilP uHPSPF hPFtPOF| aAmPFArP aAjPLkPPAlP BPOArPQ gPOAnPL ESPFKPitPO vhPFiCPF kPPirP-- uHPSPF ainPLkPPgOUilPA BZOpPOLAlPQ ... ePHPM kPPrPqNP HPXPYArP sFUrP-- ainPLkPP uHPSPF BPOAilPA BPOAilPA EhPFOdLUPOAnPLQ gPOAnPL-- gPOAnPL pPOLAbPL EkPPCUFvhPF jPLAEnPL unPL HPlPilPvhPF hPFbPLF|
    sPFAjPLAdPLFpOLUrP, 5 jULlPAvhPF 1892; 22.3.1299 #66


    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, ECPFnPpPOLeOL`AHPlPQ,  EHPSLPBPOArPtPOQ, 1319


aAmPFAidPLrP mPFitPO rPAgPO-rPAEgPONPQ EHPSLPsFEPLrP mPFiDPFz EnPLtPOz aAiCPFF| usPFvhPFjPLnPLz aAmPFAidPLrP kPPAilPAbPLAEtPO gPOAnPLWvPFA EVPFkPP uyPnPL mPFAnFUiXPrP gPOAnPL nPLbPL, tPOAhPFA uyPnPL sPFmPFPF jPLgPOitPOrPF| uBPOirPA uyPnPL uBPOArPiHPlPArP aAkPPAiSPFrPvhPF pPOLTPmPF jPLAgPOrPNP; pPOLrPjPL uyPnPL aHPsPFnP rPAEeOL`iSPFiXPrP EnPLdPAEHPhOHPlPtPOA; kPPAnPLAwxPFA uyPnPL GPLnPLAPkPPAirP aEBPOsPFAErPkPPA EnPLSPFQETPnPLQrP pPOLTPEHPPFEtPO; uBPOrPHPQ uyPnPL sPFPEHPhPFQnPL asPFQimPFrP EcPFrPEHPrPhPFiHPdPLnPLA; mFZlPtPOAnPL uyPnPL urPdPtPOPL EdPLnPLAiPOrP `FkPPAEPOEnPLSLPAsPF; FpOLZrPHPQ uyPnPL SFZnPLzgOhPFcPFAErPNPQ EHPDPFHPA sPFPzArP a`LSPFqimPFAcPFnPLF|

    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, sPFPQitPOrP mFUEoPL, sPFHUjPL pPOLeOL`, BPOAdP 1324; CPFOdP, pPOLTPmPF sPFMFFkPPrPNP; kPPElPkPPAtPOAbPL rPAmPFimPFAhPFnPL lPAvhPFi`FHPErPitPO rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP kPPtOYkPP pPOLEVPFtPO, 'EHPEcPFeOL`A' sPFBPOAbPLoPF uHPADPFhPFbPL EtPOEnPL pPOLHPPEWvPF pPOLAVPF kPPirPnPLF|


 

 

23

aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ, mPFA,
aEbPL   EnPLmPFYlPsFZyPYkPPirPAPlP DPFrPNPQ   jPLnPLkPPjPLnPLEnPLjPLnPLnPLQF|F|
nPLQlPEsPFUjPLlPiDPFtPOcPFrPNPtPOlP,   aEnPLlPEHPkPPEOLpPOLtPO-SPFzAmPFlP-aPOlP,
aPrPcUFEPtPOBPOAlPEhPFmPFAcPFlP, SFUtUOXPArPEkPPrPQEWvPFnPLQF|F|
pPOLTPmPF pPOLBPOAtPO wvPOdPLbPL tPOHP gPOgPOinPL,   pPOLTPmPF sPFAmPFrPHP tPOHP tPOipPOLAHPinPL,
pPOLTPmPF pPOLcPFAErPtPO tPOHP HPnPLBPOHPinPL   PPAnPLDPFmPFY kPPtPO kPPAHPzkPPAEhPFnPLQF|
EcPFrPkPPlPzANPmPFbPLQ tUOEmPF DPFnPLz,   udPLSPFEHPidPLiSPF EHPtPOErPCPF anP--
jPLAhPHPQyPmFUnPLA EHPgPOElPtPO kPPrPqNPA FpOLUNPzpPOLQyZXPPFnPLzHPAEhPFnPLQF|F|

Portrait

EHPEHPDPF tPOTPz oP aAilPAcPFnPLA:

A SONG OF IND.

O  CHARMER of the whole world's mind,
O land of brightest sunshine, Ind,
My parents' parent thou !
Thy feet are wash'd by azure seas,
Thy green hem trembles in the breeze,
Thy sky-kist front the Snow-mount is,
White frost doth crown thy brow.
The earliest dawn was on thy dome,
Psalms earliest from thy woods did come,
Spread earliest in thy sylvan home
Knowledge and Truth enow.
O blest, thou ever-hallow'd land,
That feedest many a foreign strand,
Flowest with Gunga, Jumna bland,
Pure nectar-bosom' d thou ! [October, 1900.]

  --Roby Dutt's Note : This pretty anthem gives us an insight into the Indian national mind.

    --Roby Dutt, Echoes from East and West [ to which are added stray notes of mine own],  Galloway & Porter, Cambridge, 1909



[Another Version]

W   ELL-BELOVED of the whole world,
  a land of my forefathers, my motherland!
Bathed in the orient sun
  there you stand-- bright and chaste.
The blue waters of the oceans wash your feet.
In the soft-blown breeze
  gently flutters your green mantle.
Your snow-crested Himalayan brow
  is kissed by the heavens.
The first day dawned in your sky.
Out of the heart of your hermitage
  arose the first holy chants.
In your forest retreat were written
  the first epics of wisdom and faith.
Hail, mother of abiding mercy,
  sustainer of millions at home and abroad.
The holy waters of your Ganga and Jamuna
  flow with your mother's milk of loving kindness.


    --Anon., Anthology.



1896 sPFinPLrP pPOLcPFApPOLWvPF:

rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP jPLgPO: 4VPFA ufPO`FHPqbPLAErP HPilPLLdPLnPLAiTPrP EHPHPAhPFF| 12vhPF EwPOisPFPrP kPPEnPLPOFpOLUeOL` SPFmPFQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP jPLOLPF| jPLEmPFdPLAErPrP kPPAijPL wvPOoP`LrPHPP oPF wvPOEwxPFXPzAbPL mPFNP, rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP kPPAijPL KLUEsPF hPFibPL mPFhPFEXPY 8vhPF agPOAOFWvPF jPLEmPFdPLAErPrP sPFHPYmPFbPL kPPtOYPL tPOArP oPFpPOLirP nPLzPF kPPirPnPLF| EHPwPOnPL uFFkPPAbPLAirP jPLAtPOQbPL kPPMiLgPFisPFrP aEDPFiHPSPFinPL EnPLijPLrP sFUirP 'HPiOdP mPFAtPOrPmPF' ugPOibPLECPFilPnPL, tPOArPpPOLrP pPOLEtPOEnPLEDPFidPLrP VPFAkFUOrPHPAEwxPFitPO aBPOzTPYnPLA kPPirPnPL 'aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ' gPOAnPL SFUEnPLibPLF| rPcPFnPLA: 'jPLQHPnPLidPLHPtPOA' kPPEHPtPOA, 'EcPFeOL`A' oPF 'ucPFtPOAElP'rP EkPPCUF kPPEHPtPOA, 'nPLElPnPLQ' nPLAWvPFzkPPAHPzF| pPOLkPPASPF: nPLdPLQ, EcPFeOL`A, kPPAHPzLgPFPFAHPlPQ (pPOLTPmPF kPPAHPz sPFMkPPlPnPL, HPwxPFEdPL usPFdPLAEmPFnPLQ udPLHPQrP uCPFilP sPFtPOzpPOLsPFAdPL gPOiPApPOLADPFzAbPL sPFMkPPlPkPP)F|

HPEhPFEHPYiSLP: 25iSPF agPOAOFWvPF 'sPFAPLAEhPFkPP HPsFUmPFtPOQ'-rP pPOLkPPASPFF| BPOArPitPO pPOLTPmPF cPFlPELcPFeOL` pPOLdPLESPFYtPO uhPFAilPA uHPAPAvhPFitPOF| usPFrPQLLdPLimPFAhPFnPL VPFAkFUOrP BPOArPtPOQbPL oPF pPOLAcPFAtPOz sPFPQitPO pPOLArPdPLESPFYtPOArP jPLnPLz aPifPOAwPOY EHPSLPEHPdPLzAlPbPL uTPikPP wPOPOrP afPO EmPFwvPOEjPLkPP wvPOpPOLAEDPF upPOLilPnPLF| asPFmPFQbPLA BPOAXPArP KPzAtPOnPLAmPFA sPFAEhPFEtPOzkPP uhPFmPFcPFLLdPL HPrPqbPLA, fPOrPAsPFQ kPPEHP pPOLlP uBPOilPYnPL oPF wPOAvhPFnPLAmPFAvhPFiWvPFrP aAEHPPOtPOYA azAlPi`FfPOLwPO unPLAiHPilPrP mFtUOzF| wvPOi`lPKPiyPAgPOz sPFAEhPFtPOzkPPmPFY: EdPL sPFAiPOnPL uHPlP (hPFpPOLWvPFmPFzAnPL), ePi`FfPOLAEdPLitPO (EpPOLibPLrP lUvhPF), kFUOoPF uBPOEdPLsPF (SPFQnPLEkPPibPLEBPOcPF)F|


    --pPOLBPOAtPOkFUOmPFArP mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAbPL, rPHPQLLdPLjPLQHPnPLkPPTPA, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1392 ePHPM
EcPFoP`LrPPnPL HPiOdPzApPOLADPFzAbPL sPFOLpPOLAdPLkPP, rPHPQLLdPL-pPOLsPFP 4, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1998



1919 nPLiBPOPirP HPPQbPL sPFAEhPFtPOz pPOLErPXPidPLrP ugPOhPFAEWvPF SPFAKPArP rPHPQLLdPL-aEBPOnPLOdPnPL sPFBPOAbPL sPFOLpPOLAdPLkPP aASFUitPOAXP cPFiPOApPOLADPFzAbPL rPHPQLLdPLnPLATPikPP gPOAnPL kPPrPArP anFUirPADPF jPLAnPLAnPLF| wvPOoP`LirP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP HPilPnPL, "anFUirPADPF ePkPPWvUF EHPlPiP ePisPF upPOLiCPFicPFF| EeOL`SPF-pPOLbPLEeOL`SPF HPCPFrP aAigPO hPFilP nPLA hPFbPL ePkPPWvPFA kPPTPA ECPFlPF| tPOKPnPL KPzAEtPO ECPFlP uyP ePvhPF ulPAkPPWvPFA gPOAnPL gPOAvhPFitPO pPOLAirPF| ePKPnPL usPFvhPF KPzAEtPOrP wvPOpPOLrP dPLAEHP kPPrPilP hPFiHP EkPPrPkPPmPF? uyP ePkPPWvPFA ulPAkPP udPLwvPOilP hPFibPL EgPOibPLoPF ucPFkPP ElPKP EdPLiCPFF|" rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP sPFAmPFinPL ePkPPWvPFA hPFArPimPFAEnPLbPLmPF DPFrPA hPFilP HPlPilPnPL, "nPLA, oPFWvPFArP dPLrPkPPArP unPLvhPFF| tPOAhPFilP aApPOLnPLArPA aAmPFArP kPPPOOPrP SFUnPLitPO pPOLAiHPnPL nPLAF|" rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP gPOAvhPFilPnPL 'aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ'F| kPPETPtPO aAiCPF uyP vhPFEtPOFpOLZiHPY ePvhPF SPFhPFirP aArP ukPPAinPLA wvPOpPOLlPiPP ePtPO jPLnPLsPFmPFAgPOmPF hPFbPL nPLAvhPFF|

ePvhPF ePkPPEdPLinPL sPFkPPAilP aArP dLUFpOLUirP jPLnPLsPFBPOAbPL BPOAXPNP ePHPM usPFvhPF sPFiP aAHPArP EHPnPLA mPFAvhPFikPP sPFMgPOQtPO pPOLErPiHPSPFnPL aAWvPFAnP HPCPFrP HPbPLisPFrP kPPPOikPP PPEtPOLgPFPF kPPrPArP pPOLiPP yPiTPPLF| (57)


    --pPOLATPY HPsFU, "gPOAbPLkPP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP", aAnPLOdP - 1393-utPO wvPOtPO


[dPLAiPO, EmPFlPWvPFnPL oPF uSPFkPPsPFEpPOLbPLrP] vhPFhPFArPA EcPFrPDPFHPlP EnPLPOpPOLOdP mPFAwvPOFWvPF ePBPOAirPOFWvPF HPA kPPAPOnPLjPLOLGPLArP mPFtPO mPFAnPLsPFjPLgPOitPOrP sPFiHPAYLcPF cZFwxPFAF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP ePvhPF u`LSPFNPQrP mPFnPLQXPQF| ePkPP HPArP 'HPP aAmPFArP, jPLnPLnPLQ aAmPFArP' ePvhPF gPOAnPLEWvPF EPOrP hPFvhPFbPLA SFUnFUnPL; aArP ePkPP EdPLnPL 'aEbPL BUOHPnPLmPFinPLAimPFAEhPFnPLQ' gPOAnPL kPPrPAnPLF| tPOAhPFArP pPOLrP ePkPPAkPPQ cUFpPOL kPPErPbPLA DPFQrPBPOAiHP pPOLitPOzkPP gPOAnPL SFUEnPLHPArP pPOLrP aApPOLnPLArP mPFinPLABPOAiHPrP sFZP EHPi`LSPFXPNP kPPErPbPLA udPLKLUnPLF| tPOKPnPL HUEJPFiHPnPL uyP, ePvhPF dLUvhPFEWvPF gPOAinPL aApPOLnPLArP hFdPLibPL dLUvhPFEWvPF aEtPO EHPEBPOnP BPOAHP jPLAgPOAvhPFbPLA EdPLbPLAiCPF, usPF pPOLATPYkPPz u`LSPFNPQgPOtPO, usPFWvPFA kPPmPF-uHPESPFrP HPA BPOAlP-mPFOdPrP kPPTPA nPLihPFF|

    --yPdLUnPLATP sPFrPkPPArP, rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP ePkPPEWvPF dPLAnPL, SPFEnPLHPAirPrP EcPFEVPF, aAESLPnPL 1348 (160)


    --SPFzAmPFsFUOdPrP mPFAvhPFEtPO sPFOLpPOLAEdPLtPO, rPEHP urPKPA, HPPBPOArPtPOQ LgPFPFAlPbPL, hPFAoPFwxPFA, 1997-eP wvPOtPO


rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP nPLAnPLAnPL sFUirP gPOAnPL uHPiDPFiCPFnPL, EkPPUO tPOArP usPFvhPF sPFhPF`LsLPL sPFhPF`LsLPL gPOAnPLgOUElPrP mPFiDPFz yPEdPL ukPPAinPLA ePkPPEWvPF rPAigPOrP sPFPiP tPOArP EHPiSPFXP anFUrPAigPOrP pPOLErPcPFbPL pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL utPOA usPFEWvPF hPFiCPF uBPOrPHPQF| sFUrPsFEPLrP uPPieOL` rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP uBPOrPHPQ-EsPFP ECPFilPnPLF| EtPOEnPL pPOLAcPFQnPL uBPOrPHPQ rPAigPOrP anFUBZOEtPO urPiKP ePkPP nPLHP rPAgPO sFEPL kPPrPilPnPL; rPAgPOkPPtPOYArP nPLAmPF jPLEwxPFibPL rPAigPOrP nPLAmPF-- yPTPA EmPFbPLAEkPP utPOAEwxPF, sFUrPdPLAsPFQ mPF`lPArP-- udPLHPArP pPOLTPA anFUsPFrPNP kPPirP tPOArP nPLAmPF EdPLibPLECPF "rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQ"F| rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP sFUrPEmPF`LSPFNP uyPmPFnPL BPOAHPDPFmPFYQ, rPAgPODPFmPFYQ nPLbPL, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQoPF utPOmPFEnPL BPOAHP pPOLkPPAiSPFrP tPOAEgPOidPL sFEPL hPFibPLiCPFF|

rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO aASPFAHPrPQ, DPFAnPL`LSPFQ oPF uWvPFAEwxPF -- ePvhPF EtPOnPLEWvPF rPAigPOrP aAsPFA yPAoPFbPLA kPPAinPL HPAijPLF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQ ePkPPEWvPF OPbPLMsPFOFpOLZNPY rPAgPO, ePEWvPF rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP aEBPOnPLHP sFEPLF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQrP EHPiSPFXPPLgOUElP ePkPPWvUF tPOElPibPL udPLKPitPO pPOLArPilPvhPF DPFrPA pPOLiwxPF yPAbPLF| pPOLTPmPFtPO, gPOAPArP-nPLzAsPF hPFiCPF rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO, uBPOrPHPQitPO ePEWvPF hPFbPL nPLAF| aArP gPOAPArP-nPLzAsPF hPFiCPF HPilP rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO kPPAnPLAwxPFArP CPFAbPLA pPOLiwxPFiCPF, tPOiHP usPFEWvPF EkPPUO SFUP kPPAnPLAwxPFArP, dPLrPHPArPQ kPPAnPLAwxPFArP nPLbPLF| EPtPOQbPLtPO, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO uyP 'DPFA'EWvPF HPzHPhPFArP kPPrPA hPFibPLiCPF, usPFEWvPF hPFiCPF uBPOirPArP 'DPFA'F| uBPOrPHPQrP 'DPFA'rP sPFiP tPOArP `LSPFqEtPOrP pPOLATPYkPPz aAiCPFF| wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP OPrPpPOL ' uhPF EcPFrPnFZtPOnPL' gPOAnPLEWvPFrP kPPTPA wvPOi`lPKP kPPrPA uyPitPO pPOLAirPF| 'EcPFrPnFZtPOnPL'-ePrP 'EcPFrPnFZ' pPOLyPYPO uBPOirPArP 'DPFA'-eP HPADPFAF| tOtPOQbPLtPO, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO EnPLrPUOSPF 'urP', 'gPOA', 'DPFA' oPF 'EnPL' pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL nPLAF| pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL ePkPPmPFAeOL` rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP `FHPPFsPFPQtPO pPOLyPYAibPLrP gPOAnPLgOUElPitPOF| cPFtUOTPYtPO, ePvhPF OPrPHPzHPPOAikPP EHPkFOtPO pPOLdPLYArP wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP HPilP pPOLArP pPOLAoPFbPLArP wvPOpPOLAbPL unPLvhPF ukPPnPL nPLA, EHPkFOtPO pPOLdPLYArP ePkPPWvPFA sPFQmPFA aAiCPFF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO ePvhPF DPFrPinPLrP pPOLdPLYA ainPLkPP uHPESPF aAiCPFF|  ePCPFAwxPFA rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO SFUP 'urP', SFUP 'gPOA' aArP kPPEwxPF 'mPFA'rP HPzHPhPFArP sPFhPFijPLvhPF DPFrPA pPOLiwxPFF|

rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP pPOLAbPL EtPOnPL hPFAjPLArP [?] gPOAinPLrP mPFiDPFz ePvhPF nPLtUOnPL rPAigPO HPADPFA pPOLAbPL EtPOnPLiSPFA gPOAnPL aAiCPFF| [ePvhPFKPAinPL usPFimPFzLLdPLnPLATP 50EWvPF gPOAinPLrP tPOAElPkPPA EdPLibPLiCPFnPL; aAmPFrPA ePvhPF aAilPAcPFnPLA KPLPLEWvPF sPFHP uBPOrPHPQ gPOAinPLvhPF pPOLibPLAgPO kPPrPlPAmPF]


    --usPFimPFzLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP, rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP gPOAnPL, uHPtPOAEnPLkPP pPOLkPPASPFnPLQ, 1396