gPOQtPOEHPtPOAnPL-GITABITAN
sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF aAmPFArP jPLiOLPECPF ePvhPF udPLiSPFF|

Book Cover

rPcPnPLA pPPErLLEcPEtPO

rPcPFnPLAkPPAlP:  1312 (1905)
kPPEHPrP HPbPsLP: 44
pPOLkPPASPF: aAESLPnPL 1312 , HPAwvPOlP-sPFATPYkPPjPLnPLmPF |
gPOAnPL (1315-HPAwvPOlP;1316-jPLAtPOQbPL)F|

Poems 38
gPOQtPOE`HPtPOAnPL(pPOLyPYAbPL;#/FpOL) OPidPLSPF-OPidPLSPF; 24/257
rPAgPO / tPOAlP: uBPOrPHPQ / ePkPPtPOAlP
OPrPElPEpPOL: sPFPQtPO pPOLkPPAESPFkPPA; BPOArPtPOtPOQTPY (1354); OPrPE`HPtPOAnPL 46
OPrPE`lPEpPOLkPPArP : vhPFEOdPrPA udPLHPQ; e; e
pPOLAdPLWvPFQkPPA:
rPHPQLLdPL-WvPFPA, mFUoPLCPFiOdP gPOAoPFbPLA hPFibPL TPAikPPF| mPFtPOAPOirP HPAwvPOlPAP gPOAnPL [rP-BPOA]F|
pPOLAVPFiBPOdPL:
jPLiOLPECPF eP udPLiSPF
    [gPOQEHPnPL] 1mPF sPFM 1338
oPFvhPF aAilPAitPO nPLbPLnPL urPiKP
    [sPFPQtPO pPOLkPPAESPFkPPA]F|


aAilPAcPFnPLA

1348 sPFAilPrP 25iSPF uHPSPFAiKP gOUrPqidPLiHPrP jPLiOLPAsPFHP EnPLibPL sPFmPFPF HPAPFlPAidPLSPF yPKPnPL umPFitPO wvPOVPFlP, ... SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOinPL EfPOirP ePisPF gOUrPqidPLiHPrP sPFiP udPLKPA kPPrPitPO ugPOECPFF| EtPOEnPL EjPLPPAsPFA kPPrPilPnPL, pPOLEcPFiSPF uHPSPFAiKPrP EdPLnPL ePKPAinPL kPPQ hPFiHPF| kPPTPAHPAtPOYAbPL HUJPFlPAmPF usPFvhPF jPLOLPEdPLnPL wvPOpPOLlPPP kPPirP nFtPOzgPOQtPO vhPFtPOzAEdPLrP aAibPLAjPLnPL uhPFAkPP ePvhPF tPOArP vhPFCPFAF| jPLOLPEdPLinPLrP aAigPO ePkPPEdPLnPL sPFPzAbPL pPOLSLP kPPErP, "wvPOsPFiHPrP sPFmPFbPL ' aAHPArP yPEdPL vhPFCPFA kPPrP' gPOAnPLEWvPF EkPP gPOAvhPFHPF|" tPOArP jPLOLPEdPLinPLrP gPOAinPLrP kPPTPA tPOAikPP EjPLPPAsPFA kPPrPAitPO aApPOLEoP`L kPPirP HPlPilPnPL, " tUOvhPF uHPiCPF unPL, aAmPFArP jPLOLPEdPLinPLrP gPOAnPL aAEmPF uHPiCPF udPLHP ukPPnPLF|" ePkPPWvUF pPOLirP wvPOpPOLirPrP gPOAnPLEWvPFrP pPOLsPFiP ainPLkPP kPPTPA HPilP ugPOilPnPLF| kPPTPArP BPOAiHP HUiJPFECPFlPAmPF uyP, udPLSPF tPOAikPP sPFOFpOLZNPY EcPFnPLlP nPLA ePvhPF aEBPOmPFAnPL tPOKPinPLA tPOArP mPFinPL rPibPLiCPFF| HPilPECPFilPnPL, "aAEmPF yPKPnPL cPFilP yPAHP tPOKPnPL HUJPFiHP udPLiSPFrP jPLnPLz kPPQ kPPirPECPFF|" KPAEnPLkPPPPNP nPLQrPHP hPFibPL uTPikPP ' sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF aAmPFArP' gPOAnPLEWvPF pPOLAiNPrP aAiHPigPO ugPOibPL wvPOVPFilPnPLF| HUJPFlPAmPF udPLSPF tPOAikPP HUJPFitPO pPOLAirP EnPL eP aEBPOmPFAnPL yPtPOvhPF TPAkFUOkPP nPLA ukPPnPL, udPLiSPFrP pPOLEtPO BPOAilPAHPAsPFA tPOArP ukPPAinPLAEdPLnPL kPPmPFitPO pPOLAirP nPLAF| (267)

    --SPFAEPOidPLHP uGPLAXP, rPHPQLLdPLsPFMgPOQtPO, EHPSLPBPOArPtPOQ LgPFPFnPLEHPBPOAgPO, ujPLzPO 1377



HPPBPOP aAiOdPAlPinPLrP yUigPO rPEcPFtPO 'sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF aAmPFArP' gPOAinPLrP sFUrPEWvPF sPFPFHPtPO FpOLZHPYtPOnPL sFUrPgPOtPO kPPAVPFAimPFArP kPPAilPApPOLiyPAgPOQ sPFMFFkPPArP mPFAeOL`F| ePvhPF DPFrPinPLrP sFUirPvhPF OPNPYkFUOmPFArPQ udPLHPQrP 'ePKPinPLA ePKPinPLA pPOLANP usPF nPLAimPF ESPFhPFirP ukPPnPL' gPOAnPLEWvPF rPEcPFtPO (OPrPElPEpPOL gPOQEtPOmPFAlPAbPL OPrPElPEpPOL aAiCPF)F| (19)

    --arPqNPkFUOmPFArP HPsFU, 'aAmPFArP aApPOLnPL gPOAnPL', ePkFUOSPFSPFtPOkPP, 1418


uBPOrPHPQ sFUirPrP umPFAcPFwxPFgOUilPA kPPAinPL ePilP jPLgPOitPOrP pPOLEtPO ePkPP rPkPPmPF EHPEcPFeOL` BPOAiHPrP wvPOdPLbPL hPFbPL... mPFinPL hPFbPL ePkPPWvPFA EnPLbPLimPFrP hPFPF aEHP`LSPFAmPF aAEgPOYnPL yPiFPLrP hPFAtPOA uGPLArPAiCPF ePHPM usPFvhPF GPLXPYNPiHPdPLnPLAbPL sPFmPFPF EHPSLP`FHPPFAiLPLrP mPFmPFYPOlP hPFitPO ePkPPWvPFA gPOPFQrP kPPAtPOrP kPPrPqNP rPAEgPONPQ wvPOCPLOLEsPFtPO hPFibPL wvPOVPFiCPF-- sPFkPPAlP uHPlPAkPPArP sFZiyPYrP sPFmPFPF aAilPA `LmLPLAnPL hPFibPL ePisPFiCPF, gPOACPFpPOLAlPArPA EnPLPFP hPFibPL kPPQ uyPnPL SFUnPLiCPF ePHPM aAkPPASPF ePkPPWvPFA EHPSLPHPzApPOLQ a`LSPFqrP HPAiOpPF uyPnPL aACPFnP hPFibPL rPibPLiCPF-- aTPYA, dLZrP aAkPPAiSPFrP EdPLikPP cPFAvhPFilP mPFinPL hPFbPL uyPnPL ePkPPWvPFA aEnPLimPFXP nPLQlP ucPFAKP ukPPHPlP CPFlPCPFlP kPPirP ucPFibPL aAiCPFF|
    kPPlPkPPAtPOA, jULnPL 1889  #3


a[HPnPL?] oPF HPAEwxPFitPO tPOAidPLrP ePkPP tPOlPArP GPLirP HPisPF ePsPFrPAijPL uBPOrPHPQ aAlPApPOL kPPrPiCPF, aAEmPF utPOtPOlPArP ukPPAiNPrP GPLirP HPisPF POpPOLPL SFUnPLitPO pPOLAECPFF| utPOArP EcPFEVPFitPOoPF tUOvhPF mPFAWvPFAiPrP uBPOrPHPQ aAlPAipPOLrP kPPTPA ElPiKPECPFsPFF| aAjPLkPPAlP sPFkPPAilP udPLKPitPO udPLKPitPO uHPlPA dPLSPFWvPFA ePgPOAirPAWvPFA dLUFpOLUrP hPFibPL yPAbPL-- EdPLnPLWvPFA yPtPOvhPF wvPOoP`LPL hPFibPL wvPOVPFitPO TPAikPP mPFnPLWvPFAoPF tPOtPOvhPF ePkPP rPkPPmPF wvPOdPLAsPFQnPL hPFibPL aAisPF; tPOArP wvPOpPOLrP kPPAinPL yPKPnPL HPArPPArP uBPOrPHPQrP atPOzPO kPPrPqNP EmPFnPLEtPOrP uKPAcPF lPAgPOitPO TPAikPP tPOKPnPL aAkPPAiSPFrP mPFiDPFz, urPidPrP mPFiDPFz, ePkPPWvPFA pPOLkPPALPL uHPrPAgPOz HPzAPL hPFibPL yPAbPLF| kPPmPFYE`FkPPPL sPFiOdPhPFpPOLQEwxPFtPO EHPibPLAgPOiSPFAkPPkPPAtPOrP sPFMsPFAirPrP EBPOtPOrPkPPArP uyP EcPFrPPOAbPLQ sFUgPOBPOQrP dLUKPEWvPF, uBPOrPHPQ rPAEgPONPQitPO usPFvhPFEWvPFikPP ePikPPHPAirP EHPgPOElPtPO kPPirP uHPrP kPPirP EnPLibPL aAisPFF| mPFAnFUiXP mPFAnFUiXP sPFOLpPOLikPPYrP mPFiDPFz uyP-ePkPPEWvPF EnPLtPOziSPFAkPP EnPLtPOzBPObPL EnPLtPOzEmPFnPLEtPOrP BPOAHP aAiCPF, aAmPFAidPLrP hFdPLbPL wvPOdPLGPLAWvPFnPL kPPirP uBPOrPHPQ usPFvhPF kPPAnPAkPPAEWvPF mFUoPL kPPirP udPLbPL-- aAmPFAidPLrP uHPdPLnPLArP sPFiP jPLgPOdPLHPzApPOLQ uHPdPLnPLArP sPFOLpPOLkPPY POApPOLnPL kPPirP udPLbPLF| sPFEtPOzvhPF utPOA aAmPFAidPLrP EkPPCUFvhPF POAbPLQ nPLbPL, EkPPUO pPOLkFOEtPO kPPQ ePkPP aUFtPO mPFFPLHPilP usPFvhPF kPPTPAEWvPFvhPF aAmPFAidPLrP sPFHPYdPLA BUOElPibPL urPiKPiCPF-usPFvhPFjPLinPLzvhPF aAmPFrPA wvPOsPFAihPFrP sPFEhPFtPO sPFMsPFAirPrP kPPAjPL kPPrPitPO pPOLAErPF| uBPOrPHPQitPO usPFvhPF EcPFrPsPFtPOz usPFvhPF mFtUOziHPdPLnPLA pPOLkPPASPF hPFibPL pPOLiwxPF; aAmPFAidPLrP ePvhPF kPPTPA HPilP udPLbPL uyP, aAmPFrPA yPA-EkPPCUF jPLAEnPL tPOArP EkPPCUFvhPF TPAkPPiHP nPLA ePHPM yPA EcPFrPkPPAlP TPAkPPiHP tPOArP aAmPFrPA EkPPCUFvhPF jPLAEnPL unPLF|
  --kPPlPkPPAtPOA, 21 nPLiBPOPrP 1894; 6.8.1301 #177


[EkPPUO] aAjPL sPFkPPAilP ePkPPWvPFA sPFAnPLAvhPFibPLitPO uBPOrPHPQ HPAjPLAECPFlP, ePmPFEnPL aEtPOErPoPL EmPFEPL lPAgPOECPFlP uyP usPF aArP kPPQ HPlPHP-- aAmPFArP ucPFAiKPrP sPFAmPFinPLkPPArP SFZnPLz aAkPPASPF ePHPM HPAtPOAsPF pPOLyPYPO ePkPPWvPFA aPOrPEnPLrPqP ePOdPinPLrP aAiHPigPO uyPnPL OOfPOLQtPO hPFibPL wvPOVPFECPFlP-- HPiwxPFA kPPAtPOrP EkPPUO HPiwxPFA sFUOdPrP-- usPFvhPF sFUrPWvPFAvhPF gPOlPAbPL ukPPnPL uyP utPOmPFnPL kPPirP aAisPF nPLA HUJPFitPO pPOLAErP unPLF| mPFAnFUiXPrP gPOlPArP ucPFibPL kPPAsPFArP nPLilPrP EBPOtPOirP ukPPnPL ePtPO uHPESPF BPOAHP pPOLkPPASPF kPPirP! ePKPnPL aAHPArP tPOArPA mFUlPtPOAnPL HPAjPLAiCPF-- mPFnPLWvPFA HPiwxPFAvhPF wvPOdPLAsPF kPPirP EdPLibPLiCPF-- FpOLETPHPQrP ePvhPF sPFmPFPF sPFHUjPL dLiSPFzrP wvPOpPOLirP ePkPPEWvPF a`LSPFqHPAiOpPFrP aAHPrPNP uWvPFinPL EdPLibPLiCPF-- ePkPPpPOLdPLYA mFUlPtPOAnPL rPAEgPONPQrP EBPOtPOrP EdPLibPL sPFmPFPF jPLgPO udPLKPA yPAiCPFF| yPEdPL sPFHP sPFmPFibPLvhPF ePvhPFrPkPPmPF ePkPP-ePkPPWvPFA rPAEgPONPQrP EBPOtPOrP EdPLibPL jPLgPO udPLKPA uyPtPO tPOA hPFilP uHPSPF hPFtPOF| aAmPFArP aAjPLkPPAlP BPOArPQ gPOAnPL ESPFKPitPO vhPFiCPF kPPirP-- uHPSPF ainPLkPPgOUilPA BZOpPOLAlPQ ... ePHPM kPPrPqNP HPXPYArP sFUrP-- ainPLkPP uHPSPF BPOAilPA BPOAilPA EhPFOdLUPOAnPLQ gPOAnPL-- gPOAnPL pPOLAbPL EkPPCUFvhPF jPLAEnPL unPL HPlPilPvhPF hPFbPLF|
    sPFAjPLAdPLFpOLUrP, 5 jULlPAvhPF 1892; 22.3.1299 #66


    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, ECPFnPpPOLeOL`AHPlPQ,  EHPSLPBPOArPtPOQ, 1319


aAmPFAidPLrP mPFitPO rPAgPO-rPAEgPONPQ EHPSLPsFEPLrP mPFiDPFz EnPLtPOz aAiCPFF| usPFvhPFjPLnPLz aAmPFAidPLrP kPPAilPAbPLAEtPO gPOAnPLWvPFA EVPFkPP uyPnPL mPFAnFUiXPrP gPOAnPL nPLbPL, tPOAhPFA uyPnPL sPFmPFPF jPLgPOitPOrPF| uBPOirPA uyPnPL uBPOArPiHPlPArP aAkPPAiSPFrPvhPF pPOLTPmPF jPLAgPOrPNP; pPOLrPjPL uyPnPL aHPsPFnP rPAEeOL`iSPFiXPrP EnPLdPAEHPhOHPlPtPOA; kPPAnPLAwxPFA uyPnPL GPLnPLAPkPPAirP aEBPOsPFAErPkPPA EnPLSPFQETPnPLQrP pPOLTPEHPPFEtPO; uBPOrPHPQ uyPnPL sPFPEHPhPFQnPL asPFQimPFrP EcPFrPEHPrPhPFiHPdPLnPLA; mFZlPtPOAnPL uyPnPL urPdPtPOPL EdPLnPLAiPOrP `FkPPAEPOEnPLSLPAsPF; FpOLZrPHPQ uyPnPL SFZnPLzgOhPFcPFAErPNPQ EHPDPFHPA sPFPzArP a`LSPFqimPFAcPFnPLF|

    --rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP, sPFPQitPOrP mFUEoPL, sPFHUjPL pPOLeOL`, BPOAdP 1324; CPFOdP, pPOLTPmPF sPFMFFkPPrPNP; kPPElPkPPAtPOAbPL rPAmPFimPFAhPFnPL lPAvhPFi`FHPErPitPO rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP kPPtOYkPP pPOLEVPFtPO, 'EHPEcPFeOL`A' sPFBPOAbPLoPF uHPADPFhPFbPL EtPOEnPL pPOLHPPEWvPF pPOLAVPF kPPirPnPLF|


 

 

24

     sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF aAmPFArP jPLiOLPECPF ePvhPF udPLiSPFF|
     sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF, mPFA ugPOA, utPOAmPFAbPL BPOAilPAiHPisPFF|F|
jPLAEnPL unPL utPOArP DPFnPLrPtPOnPL   aAiCPF EkPP nPLA rPAnPLQrP mPFtPOnPL,
SFUDFU   jPLAEnPL aAmPFArP aP jULwxPFAbPL utPOAmPFArP CPFAbPLAbPL ePisPFF|F|
ukPPAnPL HPinPLitPO jPLAEnPL unPL fUOLlP   gPOiP ePmPFnPL kPPirP aAkFUOlP,
     ukPPAnPL gPOgPOinPL oPFiVPF urP cPFAdPL ePmPFnPL hPFAEsPF uhPFisPFF|
aAEKP umPFilP utPOAmPFArP aAilPA   pPOLTPmPF aAmPFArP ucPFAKP jULwxPFAlP,
     oPFvhPF aAilPAitPOvhPF nPLbPLnPL urPiKP mFUdPLHP nPLbPLnPL uSPFiXPF|F|

Portrait

EHPEHPDPF tPOTPz oP aAilPAcPFnPLA:

38

B  LESSED am I that I am born to this land
     and that I had the luck to love her.

What care I if queenly treasure is not in
     her store but precious enough is
     for me the living wealth of her
     love.

The best gift of fragrance to my heart is
     from her own flowers and I know
     not where else shines the moon
     that can flood my being with such
     loveliness.

The first light revealed to my eyes was
     from her own sky and let the same light
     kiss them before they are
     closed for ever.

Poems: a collection of one hundred and thirty poems, all but fifteen of which have been translated by the Poet himself. Edited by Krishna Kripalani, Amiya Chakrabarty and others.

    --Rabindranath Tagore, Poems, Visva-Bharati, 1942



1905 sPFinPLrP pPOLcPFApPOLWvPF:

rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP jPLgPO:  19iSPF jPLAnFUbPLAErP 88 HPCPFrP HPbPLisPF mPFhPFEXPY udPLiHPLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOirPrP mFtUOzF| EHPDFUiSPFKPrP BPOPOAcPFAyPY SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOinPL ESPFPPkPP hPFibPL ePilPnPLF| mPFAEsPFkPP 'BPOALPLArP' pPOLEeOL`kPPArP sPFOLpPOLAdPLnPLArP dPLAEbPLPL LgPFhPFNP kPPrPilPnPLF| aAgPOrPtPOlPAbPL EeOL`FpOLUrPA sPFAEhPFtPOz sPFEmPFEtPOrP aAmPFFPLiNP EgPOibPL 'udPLSPFQbPL rPAjPLz' pPOLHPP pPOLAVPF kPPrPilPnPLF| lPwPOY kPPAjPLYinPLrP HPPBPOiPrP pPOLPFAiHP udPLSPFHPzApPOLQ EHPiPPAiBPO rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP uyPAgPO EdPLilPnPL, 'aHPPOA oPF HPzHPPOA' pPOLHPiP E`FHPEWvPFSPF dPHPz HPbPLkPPWvPF oPF asPFhPFiyPAgPO nPLQEtPOrP kPPTPA HPlPilPnPLF| 16vhPF aiPOAHPrP HPPBPOP uhPFAilPAF| pPOLEtPOHPAidPL uSPFABPOAyPAeOL`A uhPFAilPA rPAKPQHPPnPL wvPOsPFHP kPPirP, 'HPAMlPArP mPFAEWvPF, HPAMlPArP jPLlP' gPOAnPL ugPOibPLF| kPPEHP EnPLijPL ePkPP EHPrPAWvPF uSPFABPOAyPAeOL`ArP aLgPFNPQ hPFibPL HPPBPOiPrP pPOLEtPOHPAdPL oPF sPFkPPlP HPAPFAElPrP EmPFlPinPLrP SPFpPOLTP LgPFhPFNP uGPLAXPNPA kPPrPilPnPLF| uHPSPFQrP BPOAgPO OPidPLSPFQ sPFPQtPO ePvhPF sPFmPFibPLrP rPcPFnPLAF| EkPPCUFkPPAlP ePvhPF aAiOdPAlPinPL GPLEnPLPOBPOAiHP jPLEwxPFtPO uTPikPP kPPEHP aAiOdPAlPinPLrP pPOLTP uTPikPP sPFirP yPAnPLF| 22iSPF aiPOAHPrP CPFAeOL`idPLrP rPAjPLinPLEtPOkPP aAiOdPAlPinPL aMSPFLgPFhPFNP EnPLEXPP kPPirP kFUOKPzAtPO kPPAlPYAvhPFlP sPFAkFUOYlPArP jPLAErP kPPrPA hPFbPLF| tPOArP pPOLEtPOHPAidPL HPhUF CPFAeOL`sPFBPOAbPL HPoLtPOAF| uSPFiXP sPFtPOQSPFcPFLLdPL mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAibPLrP wPOnPL usPFAsPFAvhPFEWvPFitPO aAiOdPAlPinPLrP pPOLTP uCPFiwxPF udPLHPArP kPPTPA uGPLAXPNPAF| kFUOEPLbPLAbPL HPbPLnPL EHPdPLzAlPbPL, pPOLEtPOsPFirP kFOEXPHPzAPO ePHPM EnPLjPL jPLEmPFdPLAErPitPO nPLAnPLA gPOVPFnPLmFZlPkPP kPPAjPL SFUrPq kPPrPilPnPLF| pPOLkPPASPF: aAPSPFEoPL, HPAwvPOlP, OPidPLSPFF|

HPEhPFEHPYiSLP: 18 ufPO`FHPqbPLAErP lPLPLinPL vhPFELPLbPLAnPL uhPFAmPF rPqlP usPFAsPFAvhPFEWvPF POAEpPOLtPO hPFbPLF| 20iSPF jULlPAvhPF E`FHPEWvPFSPF pPOLAlPYAimPFFWvPF HPPBPOP pPOLPFAHP anFUimPFAdPLnPL kPPirPF| 19iSPF agPOAOFWvPF lPwPOY kPPAjPLYnPL pPOLdPLtPOzAgPO kPPirPnPL, nPLtUOnPL HPwxPFlPAWvPF lPwPOY EmPFiFWvPFAF| 16vhPF aiPOAHPrP HPPBPOP kPPAyPYkPPrPQ hPFbPLF| WPOLAkPPA SPFhPFirP rPAjPLDPFAnPLQ kPPirP FpOLZHPYHPAMlPA oPF aAsPFAmPF EmPFElPibPL ePkPP nPLtUOnPL pPOLidPLSPF gPOVPFnPL kPPrPA hPFbPLF| rPAKPQHPPnPL, OPidPLSPFQ gPOAnPL ugPOibPL uSPFABPOAyPAeOL`A ePHPM arPPnPL vhPFtPOzAEdPL PArPA HPAPFAlPQ uSPFAkPP pPOLkPPASPF kPPirPF| rPAESPFbPLArP sPFiP jPLApPOLAinPLrP yUiP jPLApPOLAinPLrP jPLbPL, SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOinPL EHPjPLibPLAsPFHPF| rPAESPFbPLAitPO jPLArPtPOiFPLrP EHPrPqiP EHPpPFHPF| wPOAHPElPinPL EsPFnPL-EfPOnPL pPOLAEWvPFYrP pPOLEtPOPOAF| sPFAnPL-vhPFbPLA-usPFnPL cPFQinPLrP gOUPLsPFEmPFEtPOgOUElPikPP ePkPPeOL` kPPrPilPnPL mPFAUOidPLrP EHPtPOAwxPFinPLrP jPLnPLzF|  lPLPLinPL umPFAWvPFrP HPAsPF cPFlPA aArPPF uhPFAilPAF| aAvhPFnPLOFWvPFAvhPFnPL pPOLkPPASPF kPPrPilPnPL EHPiSPFXP aAipPOLEPPkPPHPAdPLF| wvPOi`lPKPiyPAgPOz sPFAEhPFtPOz: HPAPFAlPQrP gPOAnPL (dLUgPOYAdPLAsPF lPAEhPFwxPFQ sPFOLpPOLAEdPLtPO), EwPO upPOLAfPOAELPLsPF (oPFbPLAvhPFOOwOP), rPAvhPFwPOAsPFY WvUF EdPL sPFQ (EsPFnPLjPL)F|


    --pPOLBPOAtPOkFUOmPFArP mFUiKPApPOLADPFzAbPL, rPHPQLLdPLjPLQHPnPLkPPTPA, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1392 ePHPM
EcPFoP`LrPPnPL HPiOdPzApPOLADPFzAbPL sPFOLpPOLAdPLkPP, rPHPQLLdPL-pPOLsPFP 4, aAnPLOdP pPOLAHPElPSPFAsPFY, kPPlPkPPAtPOA 1998



SPFAEPOEnPLikPPtPOinPL aEtPOETP sPFAEhPFEtPOzkPP HPnPLfUOLlP ElPKPiCPFnPL: " rPAitPO mPFSPFArPQrP uTPikPP tUOilP ePinPL kPPEHP HPlPilPnPL:
    aAmPFArP gPOAnPL SFUnPLiHP? aAEmPF ePKPnPLoPF gPOAvhPFitPO pPOLAErP, tPOiHP aAiPF aAiPF, gOUnPLgOUnPL kPPirP gPOAvhPFF| HPlPtPO SFUEnPLibPL EdPLitPO pPOLAErP ePKPnPLvhPF--
kFUOEPOtPO hPFibPL HPlPlPAmPF,
    aApPOLnPLArP kPPPL hPFiHP nPLA utPOA?
    nPLAF| ukPPAnPL gPOAnPLWvPFA gPOAvhPFHP HPlPF|
    aApPOLnPLArP uyPWvPFA KLUSPFQF| aAEmPF aArP kPPQ HPlPHPF|

EtPOEnPL uSPFAnPLAilPnPL 'sPFATPYkPP jPLnPLmPF aAmPFArP jPLiOLPECPF ePvhPF udPLiSPF'F| mPFinPL hPFibPLECPFlP uyPnPL ePkPPEWvPF tPOQPO-kPPPO mPFrP sFUirPrP aUFtPO mPFAbPLAilPAkPP sFjPLnPL kPPirP ugPOlPF| gPOAnPL uSPFXP hPFitPO dLUjPLinPLvhPF cUFpPOL kPPirP rPvhPFlPAmPF EkPPCUFPPNPF| (69)


    --pPOLATPY HPsFU, "gPOAbPLkPP rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP", aAnPLOdP - 1393-utPO wvPOtPO


HPhUF SPFtPOAPQ aAigPO pPOLAPAiHPrP wvPOWvPF-pPOLAlPikPPrPA uyP gPOAnPL gPOAvhPFitPOA usPFEWvPF hPFlP WvPFPAF| WvPFPA sPFOLpPOLikPPY ePkPPEWvPF DPFArPNPA aAiCPF, uyP ePEWvPF oPFPFAdPLQ gPOAnPLF| aAsPFilP ePEWvPF ePikPPHPAirPvhPF LgPFAmPFz sPFMgPOQtPOF| aiyPADPFzArP ugPOAlPAmPF nPLEHP mPFArPA yPAnPL wvPOnPLEHPMSPF SPFtPOAPQrP pPOLTPmPF BPOAigPOF| tPOArP EpPOLbPLArP nPLAmPF ECPFlP uSPFArPQF| ePvhPF nPLAimPFvhPF EtPOEnPL pPOLcPFElPtPO kPPrPilPnPL uSPFArPQrP WvPFPAF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP WvPFPA gPOAinPLrP sFUrP EnPLibPL cPFcPFYA kPPirPECPFilPnPLF| HPAMlPAidPLiSPFoPF WvPFPA ECPFlP-- EnPLDFUHPAHUrP WvPFPAF| rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP uSPFArPQrP WvPFPArP WPOLPF pPOLCPFOdP kPPrPitPOnPLF| eP WvPFPAbPL HPAhPFAdLUErP udPLEKPibPL rPsPFHPEjPLYtPO dPLQGPLY tPOAnPL udPLoPFbPLArP sFUiyPAgPO unPLvhPFF| ePKPAinPL pPOLkPPAESPFtPO hPFibPLiCPF sFUirPrP EcPFkPPnPLtPOAF| tPOAvhPF rPsPF-sPFMyPmPFQ rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP EnPLDFUHPAHUrP WvPFPA nPLA EnPLibPL uSPFArPQrP WvPFPAvhPF EnPLilPnPLF| ePvhPF sFUirP HPhUF gPOAnPL tPOArP aAiCPFF| (35)

    --usPFimPFzLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP, rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP gPOAnPL, uHPtPOAEnPLkPP pPOLkPPASPFnPLQ, 1396


rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP nPLAnPLAnPL sFUirP gPOAnPL uHPiDPFiCPFnPL, EkPPUO tPOArP usPFvhPF sPFhPF`LsLPL sPFhPF`LsLPL gPOAnPLgOUElPrP mPFiDPFz yPEdPL ukPPAinPLA ePkPPEWvPF rPAigPOrP sPFPiP tPOArP EHPiSPFXP anFUrPAigPOrP pPOLErPcPFbPL pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL utPOA usPFEWvPF hPFiCPF uBPOrPHPQF| sFUrPsFEPLrP uPPieOL` rPHPQLLdPLnPLATP uBPOrPHPQ-EsPFP ECPFilPnPLF| EtPOEnPL pPOLAcPFQnPL uBPOrPHPQ rPAigPOrP anFUBZOEtPO urPiKP ePkPP nPLHP rPAgPO sFEPL kPPrPilPnPL; rPAgPOkPPtPOYArP nPLAmPF jPLEwxPFibPL rPAigPOrP nPLAmPF-- yPTPA EmPFbPLAEkPP utPOAEwxPF, sFUrPdPLAsPFQ mPF`lPArP-- udPLHPArP pPOLTPA anFUsPFrPNP kPPirP tPOArP nPLAmPF EdPLibPLECPF "rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQ"F| rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP sFUrPEmPF`LSPFNP uyPmPFnPL BPOAHPDPFmPFYQ, rPAgPODPFmPFYQ nPLbPL, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQoPF utPOmPFEnPL BPOAHP pPOLkPPAiSPFrP tPOAEgPOidPL sFEPL hPFibPLiCPFF|

rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO aASPFAHPrPQ, DPFAnPL`LSPFQ oPF uWvPFAEwxPF -- ePvhPF EtPOnPLEWvPF rPAigPOrP aAsPFA yPAoPFbPLA kPPAinPL HPAijPLF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQ ePkPPEWvPF OPbPLMsPFOFpOLZNPY rPAgPO, ePEWvPF rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP aEBPOnPLHP sFEPLF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQrP EHPiSPFXPPLgOUElP ePkPPWvUF tPOElPibPL udPLKPitPO pPOLArPilPvhPF DPFrPA pPOLiwxPF yPAbPLF| pPOLTPmPFtPO, gPOAPArP-nPLzAsPF hPFiCPF rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO, uBPOrPHPQitPO ePEWvPF hPFbPL nPLAF| aArP gPOAPArP-nPLzAsPF hPFiCPF HPilP rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO kPPAnPLAwxPFArP CPFAbPLA pPOLiwxPFiCPF, tPOiHP usPFEWvPF EkPPUO SFUP kPPAnPLAwxPFArP, dPLrPHPArPQ kPPAnPLAwxPFArP nPLbPLF| EPtPOQbPLtPO, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO uyP 'DPFA'EWvPF HPzHPhPFArP kPPrPA hPFibPLiCPF, usPFEWvPF hPFiCPF uBPOirPArP 'DPFA'F| uBPOrPHPQrP 'DPFA'rP sPFiP tPOArP `LSPFqEtPOrP pPOLATPYkPPz aAiCPFF| wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP OPrPpPOL ' uhPF EcPFrPnFZtPOnPL' gPOAnPLEWvPFrP kPPTPA wvPOi`lPKP kPPrPA uyPitPO pPOLAirPF| 'EcPFrPnFZtPOnPL'-ePrP 'EcPFrPnFZ' pPOLyPYPO uBPOirPArP 'DPFA'-eP HPADPFAF| tOtPOQbPLtPO, rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO EnPLrPUOSPF 'urP', 'gPOA', 'DPFA' oPF 'EnPL' pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL nPLAF| pPOLAoPFbPLA yPAbPL ePkPPmPFAeOL` rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP `FHPPFsPFPQtPO pPOLyPYAibPLrP gPOAnPLgOUElPitPOF| cPFtUOTPYtPO, ePvhPF OPrPHPzHPPOAikPP EHPkFOtPO pPOLdPLYArP wvPOdPLAhPFrPNP HPilP pPOLArP pPOLAoPFbPLArP wvPOpPOLAbPL unPLvhPF ukPPnPL nPLA, EHPkFOtPO pPOLdPLYArP ePkPPWvPFA sPFQmPFA aAiCPFF| rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO ePvhPF DPFrPinPLrP pPOLdPLYA ainPLkPP uHPESPF aAiCPFF|  ePCPFAwxPFA rPAHPQLLdPLQ-uBPOrPHPQitPO SFUP 'urP', SFUP 'gPOA' aArP kPPEwxPF 'mPFA'rP HPzHPhPFArP sPFhPFijPLvhPF DPFrPA pPOLiwxPFF|

rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP pPOLAbPL EtPOnPL hPFAjPLArP [?] gPOAinPLrP mPFiDPFz ePvhPF nPLtUOnPL rPAigPO HPADPFA pPOLAbPL EtPOnPLiSPFA gPOAnPL aAiCPFF| [ePvhPFKPAinPL usPFimPFzLLdPLnPLATP 50EWvPF gPOAinPLrP tPOAElPkPPA EdPLibPLiCPFnPL; aAmPFrPA ePvhPF aAilPAcPFnPLA KPLPLEWvPF sPFHP uBPOrPHPQ gPOAinPLvhPF pPOLibPLAgPO kPPrPlPAmPF]


    --usPFimPFzLLdPLnPLATP VPFAkFUOrP, rPHPQLLdPLnPLAiTPrP gPOAnPL, uHPtPOAEnPLkPP pPOLkPPASPFnPLQ, 1396